Modulations of the surface magnetic field on the intra-cycle variability of total solar irradiance

Original Article

Abstract

Solar photospheric magnetic field plays a dominant role in the variability of total solar irradiance (TSI). The modulation of magnetic flux at six specific ranges on TSI is characterized for the first time. The daily flux values of magnetic field at four ranges are extracted from MDI/SOHO, together with daily flux of active regions (MF\(_{\text{ar}}\)) and quiet regions (MF\(_{\text{qr}}\)); the first four ranges (MF\(_{1\mbox{--}4}\)) are: 1.5–2.9, 2.9–32.0, 32.0–42.7, and 42.7–380.1 (\(\times 10^{18}\) Mx per element), respectively. Cross-correlograms show that MF4, MF\(_{\text{qr}}\), and MF\(_{ \text{ar}}\) are positively correlated with TSI, while MF2 is negatively correlated with TSI; the correlations between MF1, MF3 and TSI are insignificant. The bootstrapping tests confirm that the impact of MF4 on TSI is more significant than that of MF\(_{\text{ar}}\) and MF\(_{\text{qr}}\), and MF\(_{\text{ar}}\) leads TSI by one rotational period. By extracting the rotational variations in the MFs and TSI, the modulations of the former on the latter at the solar rotational timescale are clearly illustrated and compared during solar maximum and minimum times, respectively. Comparison of the relative amplitudes of the long-term variation show that TSI is in good agreement with the variation of MF4 and MF\(_{\text{ar}}\); besides, MF2 is in antiphase with TSI, and it lags the latter by about 1.5 years.

Keywords

Sun: general Sun: activity Sun: magnetic fields 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank C. L. Jin very much for providing the data. The authors are grateful to Prof. K. J. Li for his valuable suggestions and discussions. This work has made use of open-source softwares including Numpy (Walt et al. 2011), Scipy (Jones et al. 2001), Matplotlib (Hunter 2007), IPython (Perez and Granger 2007), and Jupyter.1 This work is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (11573065, 11633008, 11273057 and 11603071), the Specialized Research Fund for State Key Laboratories, and the Chinese Academy of Sciences.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Yunnan ObservatoriesChinese Academy of SciencesKunmingChina
  2. 2.State Key Laboratory of Space WeatherChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  3. 3.Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical ObservatoriesChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  4. 4.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina

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