Astrophysics and Space Science

, Volume 355, Issue 1, pp 179–185 | Cite as

Brane viscous cosmology in the plasma era

Original Article

Abstract

We consider how the five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum (one-brane) theory becomes modified when account is taken of the bulk viscosity of the cosmic fluid on the brane. We focus on the plasma era between 1012 K (muon pair annihilation) to about 5×109 K (electron-positron annihilation), which includes the first order quark-hadron transition beginning at an energy density of about 5×109 MeV4. Various possibilities are examined for modeling the bulk viscosity, preference being at the end given to the results calculated from relativistic kinetic theory. According to this, the viscosity is negligible at the highest temperatures, but may amount to a few per cent corrections in the later stages of the plasma era. We also briefly consider anisotropic universes where the shear viscosity comes into play, and show that in the case of the Kasner model the influences from bulk viscosity and shear viscosity become comparable when the anisotropy parameter of the universe is of order A∼10−11 in the beginning of the plasma era, and A∼10−2 in its later region.

Keywords

Viscous cosmology Bulk viscosity Plasma era 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I thank Kazuo Ghoroku for valuable discussions and correspondence on this topic. Also, I thank Lars Husdal for making me aware of the paper by Hogeveen et al. (1986).

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Energy and Process EngineeringNorwegian University of Science and TechnologyTrondheimNorway

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