Gardner solitons in dusty plasmas with nonextensive ions and two-temperature superthermal electrons
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- Emamuddin, M. & Mamun, A.A. Astrophys Space Sci (2014) 351: 561. doi:10.1007/s10509-014-1861-7
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Nonlinear propagation of dust-acoustic waves in an unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of negatively charged mobile dust, nonextensive ions following nonextensive q-distribution and two distinct temperature superthermal electrons following superthermal kappa distribution each, is investigated by employing lower and higher order nonlinear equations, namely the Korteweg-de-Vries (K-dV), the modified Korteweg-de-Vries (mK-dV) and the Gardner equations. The characteristic features of the hump (positive potential) and dip (negative potential) shaped dust-acoustic (DA) Gardner solitons are found to exist beyond the K-dV limit. The effects of two superthermal temperature electrons and ions nonextensivity on the basic characteristics of DA K-dV, mK-dV and Gardner solitons have also been investigated. It has been found that the DA Gardner solitons exhibit either negative or positive potential solitons only for q<qc where, qc is the critical value of the nonextensive parameter q. The possible applications of our results in understanding the localized nonlinear electrostatic structures existing in solar atmosphere, Saturn’s magnetosphere etc. (where the tails of the high energetic particles at different temperatures follow power-law like distribution) are also briefly discussed.