Researchers have highlighted numerous sociocultural factors that have been shown to underpin human appearance enhancement practices, including the influence of peers, family, the media, and sexual objectification. Fewer scholars have approached appearance enhancement from an evolutionary perspective or considered how sociocultural factors interact with evolved psychology to produce appearance enhancement behavior. Following others, we argue that evidence from the field of evolutionary psychology can complement existing sociocultural models by yielding unique insight into the historical and cross-cultural ubiquity of competition over aspects of physical appearance to embody what is desired by potential mates. An evolutionary lens can help to make sense of reliable sex and individual differences that impact appearance enhancement, as well as the context-dependent nature of putative adaptations that function to increase physical attractiveness. In the current review, appearance enhancement is described as a self-promotion strategy used to enhance reproductive success by rendering oneself more attractive than rivals to mates, thereby increasing one’s mate value. The varied ways in which humans enhance their appearance are described, as well as the divergent tactics used by women and men to augment their appearance, which correspond to the preferences of opposite-sex mates in a heterosexual context. Evolutionarily relevant individual differences and contextual factors that vary predictably with appearance enhancement behavior are also discussed. The complementarity of sociocultural and evolutionary perspectives is emphasized and recommended avenues for future interdisciplinary research are provided for scholars interested in studying appearance enhancement behavior.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Abed, R. T. (1998). The sexual competition hypothesis for eating disorders. British Journal of Medical Psychology, 71(4), 525–547. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1998.tb01007.x.
Abed, R., Mehta, S., Figueredo, A. J., Aldridge, S., Balson, H., Meyer, C., & Palmer, R. (2012). Eating disorders and intrasexual competition: Testing an evolutionary hypothesis among young women. The Scientific World Journal. https://doi.org/10.1100/2012/290813.
Achorn, A. M., & Rosenthal, G. G. (2020). It’s not about him: Mismeasuring ‘good genes’ in sexual selection. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 35, 206–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2019.11.007.
Aiache, A. E. (1991). Male chest correction. Pectoral implants and gynecomastia. Clinics in Plastic Surgery, 18(4), 823–828.
Allen, M. W., Bettinger, R. L., Codding, B. F., Jones, T. L., & Schwitalla, A. W. (2016). Resource scarcity drives lethal aggression among prehistoric hunter-gatherers in central California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(43), 12120–12125. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1607996113.
Ames, M., & Burcon, S. (2016). How pop culture shapes the stages of a woman’s life: From toddlers-in-tiaras to cougars-on-the-prowl. London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Anderson-Fye, E. P. (2012). Anthropological perspectives on physical appearance and body image. In T. Cash (Ed.), Encyclopedia of body image and human appearance (pp. 15–22). Cambridge, England: Academic Press.
Andersson, M. B. (1982). Female choice selects for extreme tail length in a widowbird. Nature, 299(5886), 818–820. https://doi.org/10.1038/299818a0.
Andersson, M. B. (1994). Sexual selection. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Arnocky, S. (2016). Intrasexual rivalry among women. In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds.), Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science (pp. 1–8). Berlin, Germany: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1424-1.
Arnocky, S. (2018). Self-perceived mate value, facial attractiveness, and mate preferences: Do desirable men want it all? Evolutionary Psychology, 16(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704918763271.
Arnocky, S., Bird, B. M., & Perilloux, C. (2014). An evolutionary perspective on characteristics of physical attractiveness in humans. In A. Rennolds (Ed.), Psychology of interpersonal perception and relationships (pp. 115–155). Hauppauge, NY: NOVA Publishers.
Arnocky, S., Hodges-Simeon, C. R., Ouellette, D., & Albert, G. (2018). Do men with more masculine voices have better immunocompetence? Evolution and Human Behavior, 39(6), 602–610. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2018.06.003.
Arnocky, S., Perilloux, C., Cloud, J. M., Bird, B. M., & Thomas, K. (2016). Envy mediates the link between social comparison and appearance enhancement in women. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2(2), 71–83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-015-0037-1.
Arnocky, S., & Piché, T. (2014). Cosmetic surgery as intrasexual competition: The mediating role of social comparison. Psychology, 5, 1197–1205. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2014.510132.
Arnocky, S., Proietti, V., Ruddick, E. L., Côté, T. R., Ortiz, T. L., Hodson, G., & Carré, J. M. (2019). Aggression toward sexualized women is mediated by decreased perceptions of humanness. Psychological Science, 30(5), 748–756. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797619836106.
Arnocky, S., Ribout, A., Mirza, R. S., & Knack, J. M. (2014). Perceived mate availability influences intrasexual competition, jealousy and mate-guarding behavior. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 12(1), 45–64. https://doi.org/10.1556/JEP.12.2014.1.3.
Arnocky, S., & Vaillancourt, T. (2017). Sexual competition among women: A review of the theory and supporting evidence. In M. L. Fisher (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of women and competition (pp. 25–39). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Arnqvist, G. (2006). Sensory exploitation and sexual conflict. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 361(1466), 375–386. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2005.1790.
Arthur, L. C., Brooks, R. C., & Blake, K. H. (2020). Female self-sexualization covaries with mate value but not mate availability. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40750-020-00133-5.
Atari, M., Barbaro, N., Sela, Y., Shackelford, T. K., & Chegeni, R. (2017). Consideration of cosmetic surgery as part of women’s benefit-provisioning mate retention strategy. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1389. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01389.
Atari, M., Chegeni, R., & Fathi, L. (2017). Women who are interested in cosmetic surgery want it all: The association between considering cosmetic surgery and women’s mate preferences. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 3, 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40750-016-0053-9.
Atari, M., & Jamali, R. (2016). Mate preferences in young Iranian women: Cultural and individual difference correlates. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2(4), 247–253. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0060-x.
Bailey, J. M., Gaulin, S., Agyei, Y., & Gladue, B. A. (1994). Effects of gender and sexual orientation on evolutionarily relevant aspects of human mating psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66(6), 1081–1093. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1991.
Bajos, N., Wellings, K., Laborde, C., & Moreau, C. (2010). Sexuality and obesity, a gender perspective: Results from French national random probability survey of sexual behaviours. British Medical Journal, 340, c2573. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c2573.
Baker, M. D., Jr., & Maner, J. K. (2008). Risk-taking as a situationally sensitive male mating strategy. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(6), 391–395. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2008.06.001.
Bakhshi, S. (2011). Women’s body image and the role of culture: A review of the literature. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 7(2), 374–394. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v7i2.135.
Barber, N. (1995). The evolutionary psychology of physical attractiveness: Sexual selection and human morphology. Ethology and Sociobiology, 16(5), 395–424. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223989809599267.
Barber, N. (2003). The sex ratio and female marital opportunity as historical predictors of violent crime in England, Scotland, and the United States. Cross-Cultural Research, 37(4), 373–392. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397103254011.
Barlett, C. P., Vowels, C. L., & Saucier, D. A. (2008). Meta-analyses of the effects of media images on men’s body-image concerns. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27(3), 279–310. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.2008.27.3.279.
Batres, C., Kramer, S. S., DeAngelis, C. G., & Russell, R. (2019). Examining the ‘cosmetics placebo effect’. PLoS ONE, 14(1), e0210238. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0210238.
Batres, C., Porcheron, A., Kaminski, G., Courrèges, S., Morizot, F., & Russell, R. (2018). Evidence that the hormonal contraceptive pill is associated with cosmetic habits. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1459. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01459.
Batres, C., Russell, R., Simpson, J. A., Campbell, L., Hansen, A. M., & Cronk, L. (2018). Evidence that makeup is a false signal of sociosexuality. Personality and Individual Differences, 122, 148–154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.10.023.
Baumeister, R. F., & Twenge, J. M. (2002). Cultural suppression of female sexuality. Review of General Psychology, 6(2), 166–203. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-26188.8.131.52.
Bech-Sørensen, J., & Pollet, T. V. (2016). Sex differences in mate preferences: A replication study, 20 years later. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 2(3), 171–176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-016-0048-6.
Belanger, J., Temblay, C., Davis, A. C., & Arnocky, S. (2019). Luteinizing hormone. In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes Shackelford (Eds.), The encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science. Berlin: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_1812-1.
Bendixen, M., & Kennair, L. E. O. (2015). Revisiting judgment of strategic self-promotion and competitor derogation tactics. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32(8), 1056–1082. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407514558959.
Bereczkei, T., & Meskó, N. (2006). Hair length, facial attractiveness, personality attribution: A multiple fitness model of hairdressing. Review of Psychology, 13(1), 35–42.
Bielert, C., & Anderson, C. M. (1985). Baboon sexual swellings and male response: A possible operational mammalian supernormal stimulus and response interaction. International Journal of Primatology, 6(4), 377–393. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02736384.
Bilal, A., Tilahun, Z., Shimels, T., Gelan, Y., & Osman, E. (2016). Cosmetics utilization practice in Jigjiga Town, Eastern Ethiopia: A community based cross-sectional study. Cosmetics, 3(4), 40. https://doi.org/10.3390/cosmetics3040040.
Blake, K. R., Bastian, B., & Denson, T. F. (2016). Perceptions of low agency and high sexual openness mediate the relationship between sexualization and sexual aggression. Aggressive Behavior, 42(5), 483–497. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.21644.
Blake, K. R., Bastian, B., Denson, T. F., Grosjean, P., & Brooks, R. C. (2018a). Income inequality not gender inequality positively covaries with female sexualization on social media. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(35), 8722–8727. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1717959115.
Blake, K. R., & Brooks, R. C. (2019). Status anxiety mediates the positive relationship between income inequality and sexualization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(50), 25029–25033. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1909806116.
Blake, K. R., Brooks, R., Arthur, L. C., & Denson, T. F. (2020). In the context of romantic attraction, beautification can increase assertiveness in women. PLoS ONE, 15(3), e0229162. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0229162.
Blake, K. R., Fourati, M., & Brooks, R. C. (2018b). Who suppresses female sexuality? An examination of support for Islamic veiling in a secular Muslim democracy as a function of sex and offspring sex. Evolution and Human Behavior, 39(6), 632–638. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2018.06.006.
Bleske-Rechek, A., & Buss, D. M. (2006). Sexual strategies pursued and mate attraction tactics deployed. Personality and Individual Differences, 40(6), 1299–1311. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2005.11.014.
Borau, S., & Bonnefon, J. F. (2019a). Gendered products act as the extended phenotype of human sexual dimorphism: They increase physical attractiveness and desirability. Journal of Business Research. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.03.007.
Borau, S., & Bonnefon, J. F. (2019b). The imaginary intrasexual competition: Advertisements featuring provocative female models trigger women to engage in indirect aggression. Journal of Business Ethics, 157, 45–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-017-3643-y.
Borgia, G. (1993). The cost of display in the non-resource-based mating system of the satin bowerbird. The American Naturalist, 141(5), 729–743.
Boroughs, M., Cafri, G., & Thompson, J. K. (2005). Male body depilation: Prevalence and associated features of body hair removal. Sex Roles, 52(9–10), 637–644. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-3731-9.
Bovet, J. (2019). Evolutionary theories and men’s preferences for women’s waist-to-hip ratio: Which hypotheses remain? A systematic review. Frontiers in Psychology, 10, 1221. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2019.01221.
Bradshaw, H. K., Leyva, R. P., Nicolas, S. C., & Hill, S. E. (2019). Costly female appearance-enhancement provides cues of short-term mating effort: The case of cosmetic surgery. Personality and Individual Differences, 138, 48–55. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2018.09.019.
Brewer, G., & Hamilton, V. (2014). Female mate retention, sexual orientation, and gender identity. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 8, 12–19. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0097245.
Broadstock, M., Borland, R., & Gason, R. (1992). Effects of suntan on judgements of healthiness and attractiveness by adolescents. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 22(2), 157–172. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1992.tb01527.x.
Brommer, J. E., Ahola, K., & Karstinen, T. (2005). The colour of fitness: Plumage coloration and lifetime reproductive success in the tawny owl. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 272(1566), 935–940. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2005.3052.
Broussard, K. A., & Harton, H. C. (2018). Tattoo or taboo? Tattoo stigma and negative attitudes toward tattooed individuals. The Journal of Social Psychology, 158(5), 521–540. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.2017.1373622.
Brown, G. R., & Richerson, P. J. (2014). Applying evolutionary theory to human behaviour: Past differences and current debates. Journal of Bioeconomics, 16(2), 105–128. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10818-013-9166-4.
Buss, D. M. (1988). The evolution of human intrasexual competition: Tactics of mate attraction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(4), 616–628. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2066.
Buss, D. M. (1989). Sex differences in human mate preferences: Evolutionary hypotheses tested in 37 cultures. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 12(1), 1–49. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X00023992.
Buss, D. M. (1996). Sexual conflict: Evolutionary insights into feminism and the “battle of the sexes”. In D. M. Buss & N. Malamuth (Eds.), Sex, power, conflict: Evolutionary and feminist perspectives (pp. 296–318). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Buss, D. M. (2001). Human nature and culture: An evolutionary psychological perspective. Journal of Personality, 69(6), 955–978. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-6494.696171.
Buss, D. M. (2017). Sexual conflict in human mating. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 26(4), 307–313. https://doi.org/10.1177/0963721417695559.
Buss, D. M., & Dedden, L. A. (1990). Derogation of competitors. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 7(3), 395–422. https://doi.org/10.1177/0265407590073006.
Buss, D. M., Haselton, M. G., Shackelford, T. K., Bleske, A. L., & Wakefield, J. C. (1998). Adaptations, exaptations, and spandrels. American Psychologist, 53(5), 533–548. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.53.5.533.
Buss, D. M., Haselton, M. G., Shackelford, T. K., Bleske, A. L., & Wakefield, J. C. (1999). Interactionism, flexibility, and inferences about the past. American Psychologist, 54(6), 443–445. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.6.443.
Buss, D. M., & Schmitt, D. P. (2019). Mate preferences and their behavioral manifestations. Annual Review of Psychology, 70, 77–110. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-psych-010418-103408.
Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (2008). Attractive women want it all: Good genes, economic investment, parenting proclivities, and emotional commitment. Evolutionary Psychology, 6(1), 134–146. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470490800600116.
Buss, D. M., Shackelford, T. K., Kirkpatrick, L. A., & Larsen, R. J. (2001). A half century of American mate preferences: The cultural evolution of values. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 63(2), 491–503. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.00491.x.
Butler, S. M., Smith, N. K., Collazo, E., Caltabiano, L., & Herbenick, D. (2015). Pubic hair preferences, reasons for removal, and associated genital symptoms: Comparisons between men and women. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12(1), 48–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12763.
Buunk, B. P., Dijkstra, P., Fetchenhauer, D., & Kenrick, D. T. (2002). Age and gender differences in mate selection criteria for various involvement levels. Personal Relationships, 9(3), 271–278. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-6811.00018.
Buunk, A. P., & Fisher, M. (2009). Individual differences in intrasexual competition. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 7, 37–48. https://doi.org/10.1556/JEP.7.2009.1.5.
Cafri, G., Thompson, J. K., Roehrig, M., Rojas, A., Sperry, S., Jacobsen, P. B., & Hillhouse, J. (2008). Appearance motives to tan and not tan: Evidence for validity and reliability of a new scale. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 35(2), 209–220. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12160-008-9022-2.
Cafri, G., Yamamiya, Y., Brannick, M., & Thompson, J. K. (2005). The influence of sociocultural factors on body image: A meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 12(4), 421–433. https://doi.org/10.1093/clipsy.bpi053.
Cai, Z., Hahn, A. C., Zhang, W., Holzleitner, I. J., Lee, A. J., DeBruine, L. M., & Jones, B. C. (2019). No evidence that facial attractiveness, femininity, averageness, or coloration are cues to susceptibility to infectious illnesses in a university sample of young adult women. Evolution and Human Behavior, 40(2), 156–159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2018.10.002.
Calogero, R. M., Pina, A., Park, L. E., & Rahemtulla, Z. (2010). Objectification theory predicts college women’s attitudes toward cosmetic surgery. Sex Roles, 63(1), 32–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9759-5.
Campbell, A. (1999). Staying alive: Evolution, culture, and women’s intrasexual aggression. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 22(2), 203–214. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X99001818.
Cantú, S. M., Simpson, J. A., Griskevicius, V., Weisberg, Y. J., Durante, K. M., & Beal, D. J. (2014). Fertile and selectively flirty women’s behavior toward men changes across the ovulatory cycle. Psychological Science, 25(2), 431–438. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797613508413.
Carmen, R. A., Guitar, A. E., & Dillon, H. M. (2012). Ultimate answers to proximate questions: The evolutionary motivations behind tattoos and body piercings in popular culture. Review of General Psychology, 16(2), 134–143. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0027908.
Cash, T. F. (1990). Losing hair, losing points? The effects of male pattern baldness on social impression formation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 20(2), 154–167. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1559-1816.1990.tb00404.x.
Cash, T. F., Dawson, K., Davis, P., Bowen, M., & Galumbeck, C. (1989). Effects of cosmetics use on the physical attractiveness and body image of American college women. Journal of Social Psychology, 129(3), 349–355. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224545.1989.9712051.
Cash, T. F., Morrow, J. A., Hrabosky, J. I., & Perry, A. A. (2004). How has body image changed? A cross-sectional investigation of college women and men from 1983 to 2001. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(6), 1081–1089. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.72.6.1081.
Cash, T. F., Novy, P. L., & Grant, J. R. (1994). Why do women exercise? Factor analysis and further validation of the reasons for exercise inventory. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 78(2), 539–544. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19220.127.116.119.
Chang, L., Wang, Y., Shackelford, T. K., & Buss, D. M. (2011). Chinese mate preferences: Cultural evolution and continuity across a quarter of a century. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(5), 678–683. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.12.016.
Chaudhri, S. K., & Jain, N. K. (2009). History of cosmetics. Asian Journal of Pharmaceutics, 3(3), 164–167. https://doi.org/10.22377/ajp.v3i3.260.
Cho, S., & Workman, J. E. (2014). Relationships among gender, fashion leadership, need for affect, and consumers’ apparel shopping preference. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 42(4), 369–385. https://doi.org/10.1111/fcsr.12070.
Chung, V. Q., Gordon, J. S., Veledar, E., & Chen, S. C. (2010). Hot or not—Evaluating the effect of artificial tanning on the public’s perception of attractiveness. Dermatologic Surgery, 36(11), 1651–1655. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1524-4725.2010.01713.x.
Clutton-Brock, T. H. (1991). The evolution of parental care. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Clutton-Brock, T. (2007). Sexual selection in males and females. Science, 318(5858), 1882–1885. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1133311.
Clutton-Brock, T. (2009). Sexual selection in females. Animal Behaviour, 77(1), 3–11. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2008.08.026.
Coley, A., & Burgess, B. (2003). Gender differences in cognitive and affective impulse buying. Journal of Fashion Marketing and Management, 7, 282–295. https://doi.org/10.1108/13612020310484834.
Confer, J. C., Easton, J. A., Fleischman, D. S., Goetz, C. D., Lewis, D. M. G., Perilloux, C., & Buss, D. M. (2010). Evolutionary psychology: Controversies, questions, prospects, and limitations. American Psychologist, 65(2), 110–126. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0018413.
Conroy-Beam, D., & Buss, D. M. (2019). Why is age so important in human mating? Evolved age preferences and their influences on multiple mating behaviors. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 13(2), 127–157. https://doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000127.
Craig, L. K., & Gray, P. B. (2019). Pubic hair removal practices in cross-cultural perspective. Cross-Cultural Research, 53(2), 215–237. https://doi.org/10.1177/1069397118799298.
Creinin, M. D., Keverline, S., & Meyn, L. A. (2004). How regular is regular? An analysis of menstrual cycle regularity. Contraception, 70(4), 289–292. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.contraception.2004.04.012.
Cronk, L. (2005). The application of animal signaling theory to human phenomena: Some thoughts and clarifications. Social Science Information, 44(4), 603–620. https://doi.org/10.1177/0539018405058203.
Cunningham, M. R., Druen, P. B., & Barbee, A. P. (1997). Angels, mentors, and friends: Trade-offs among evolutionary, social, and individual variables in physical appearance. In J. A. Simpson & D. T. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolutionary social psychology (pp. 109–140). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Daly, M. (2017). Killing the competition: Economic inequality and homicide. Abingdon, England: Routledge.
Daly, M., & Wilson, M. (2001). Risk-taking, intrasexual competition, and homicide. In J. A. French, A. C. Kamil, & D. W. Leger (Eds.), The Nebraska symposium on motivation. Evolutionary psychology and motivation (Vol. 47, pp. 1–36). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Darwin, C. (1871). The descent of man and selection in relation to sex. London: Murray.
Davis, A. C. (2020). Resolving the tension between feminism and evolutionary psychology: An epistemological critique. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000193.
Davis, A. C., Vaillancourt, T., & Arnocky, S. (2018). Sex differences in the initiation of gossip. In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes Shackelford (Eds.), The encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science (pp. 75–91). Berlin: Springer.
Davis, A. C., Vaillancourt, T., Arnocky, S., & Doyle, R. (2019). Gossip and reputation management: An evolutionary approach to sex differences in discrimination. In F. Giardini & R. Wittek (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of gossip and reputation (pp. 303–321). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Dawkins, R. (1999). The extended phenotype (revi.ed.). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Tybur, J. M., Lieberman, D., & Griskevicius, V. (2010). Women’s preferences for masculinity in male faces are predicted by pathogen disgust, but not by moral or sexual disgust. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(1), 69–74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.09.003.
Delinsky, S. S., & Wilson, G. T. (2008). Weight gain, dietary restraint, and disordered eating in the freshman year of college. Eating Behaviors, 9(1), 82–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2007.06.001.
DelPriore, D. J., Bradshaw, H. K., & Hill, S. E. (2018). Appearance enhancement produces a strategic beautification penalty among women. Evolutionary Behavioral Sciences, 12(4), 348–366. https://doi.org/10.1037/ebs0000118.
DelPriore, D. J., Prokosch, M. L., & Hill, S. E. (2017). The causes and consequences of women’s competitive beautification. In M. L. Fisher (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of women and competition (pp. 577–596). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
DeMaria, A. L., & Berenson, A. B. (2013). Prevalence and correlates of pubic hair grooming among low-income Hispanic, Black, and White women. Body Image, 10(2), 226–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.01.002.
Deter-Wolf, A., Robitaille, B., Krutak, L., & Galliot, S. (2016). The world’s oldest tattoos. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, 5, 19–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jasrep.2015.11.007.
Dettwyler, C. (2011). Cultural anthropology & human experience: The feast of life. Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.
Diamond, J. M. (1998). Why is sex fun? The evolution of human sexuality. New York: Basic Books.
Dijkstra, P., & Buunk, B. P. (2002). Sex differences in the jealousy-evoking effect of rival characteristics. European Journal of Social Psychology, 32(6), 829–852. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.125.
Dixson, B. J., & Brooks, R. C. (2013). The role of facial hair in women’s perceptions of men’s attractiveness, health, masculinity and parenting abilities. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(3), 236–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2013.02.003.
Dixson, B. J., Dixson, A. F., Bishop, P. J., & Parish, A. (2010). Human physique and sexual attractiveness in men and women: A New Zealand–U.S. comparative study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(3), 798–806. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-008-9441-y.
Dixson, B. J., Dixson, A. F., Li, B., & Anderson, M. J. (2007a). Studies of human physique and sexual attractiveness: Sexual preferences of men and women in China. American Journal of Human Biology, 19(1), 88–95. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.20584.
Dixson, B. J., Dixson, A. F., Morgan, B., & Anderson, M. J. (2007b). Human physique and sexual attractiveness: Sexual preferences of men and women in Bakossiland, Cameroon. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(3), 369–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-006-9093-8.
Dixson, A. F., Halliwell, G., East, R., Wignarajah, P., & Anderson, M. J. (2003). Masculine somatotype and hirsuteness as determinants of sexual attractiveness to women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32(1), 29–39. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021889228469.
Dixson, B. J., & Rantala, M. J. (2016). The role of facial and body hair distribution in women’s judgments of men’s sexual attractiveness. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45(4), 877–889. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0588-z.
Dixson, B. J., Rantala, M. J., & Brooks, R. C. (2019). Cross-cultural variation in women’s preferences for men’s body hair. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 5(2), 131–147. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40750-019-0107-x.
Dixson, B. J., & Vasey, P. L. (2012). Beards augment perceptions of men’s age, social status, and aggressiveness, but not attractiveness. Behavioral Ecology, 23(3), 481–490. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arr214.
Dixson, B. J., Vasey, P. L., Sagata, K., Sibanda, N., Linklater, W. L., & Dixson, A. F. (2011). Men’s preferences for women’s breast morphology in New Zealand, Samoa, and Papua New Guinea. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40(6), 1271–1279. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-010-9680-6.
Dubbs, S. L., Kelly, A. J., & Barlow, F. K. (2017). Ravishing rivals: Female intrasexual competition and cosmetic surgery. In M. L. Fisher (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of women and competition (pp. 597–616). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Dunn, M. J., & Searle, R. (2010). Effect of manipulated prestige-car ownership on both sex attractiveness ratings. British Journal of Psychology, 101(1), 69–80. https://doi.org/10.1348/000712609X417319.
Durante, K. M., & Griskevicius, V. (2016). Evolution and consumer behavior. Current Opinion in Psychology, 10, 27–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.10.025.
Durante, K. M., & Griskevicius, V. (2018). Evolution and consumer psychology. Consumer Psychology Review, 1(1), 4–21. https://doi.org/10.1002/arcp.1001.
Durante, K. M., Li, N. P., & Haselton, M. G. (2008). Changes in women’s choice of dress across the ovulatory cycle: Naturalistic and experimental evidence. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 34, 1451–1460. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167208323103.
Eberle, M., & Kappeler, P. M. (2004). Selected polyandry: Female choice and inter-sexual conflict in a small nocturnal solitary primate (Microcebus murinus). Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 57(1), 91–100. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00265-004-0823-4.
Elflein, J. (2019). Cosmetic surgery—Statistics and facts. Statista. Retrieved April 16, 2020, https://www.statista.com/topics/3734/cosmetic-surgery/.
Emlen, S. T., & Oring, L. W. (1977). Ecology, sexual selection, and the evolution of mating systems. Science, 197(4300), 215–223.
Etcoff, N. (1999). Survival of the prettiest: The science of beauty. New York: Anchor.
Etcoff, N. L., Stock, S., Haley, L. E., Vickery, S. A., & House, D. M. (2011). Cosmetics as a feature of the extended human phenotype: Modulation of the perception of biologically important facial signals. PLoS ONE, 6(10), e25656. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0025656.
Fales, M. R., Frederick, D. A., Garcia, J. R., Gildersleeve, K. A., Haselton, M. G., & Fisher, H. E. (2016). Mating markets and bargaining hands: Mate preferences for attractiveness and resources in two national US studies. Personality and Individual Differences, 88, 78–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2015.08.041.
Fernandez, A. M., Muñoz-Reyes, J. A., & Dufey, M. (2014). BMI, age, mate value, and intrasexual competition in Chilean women. Current Psychology, 33(4), 435–450. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-014-9221-x.
Fink, B., Grammer, K., & Thornhill, R. (2001). Human (Homo sapiens) facial attractiveness in relation to skin texture and color. Journal of Comparative Psychology, 11(1), 92–99. https://doi.org/10.1037/0735-7036.115.1.92.
Fink, B., Klappauf, D., Brewer, G., & Shackelford, T. K. (2014). Female physical characteristics and intra-sexual competition in women. Personality and Individual Differences, 58, 138–141. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.10.015.
Fink, B., Liebner, K., Müller, A. K., Hirn, T., McKelvey, G., & Lankhof, J. (2018). Hair colour and skin colour together influence perceptions of age, health and attractiveness in lightly pigmented young women. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 40(3), 303–312. https://doi.org/10.1111/ics.12467.
Fink, B., & Neave, N. (2005). The biology of facial beauty. International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 27(6), 317–325. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-2494.2005.00286.x.
Finner, A. M. (2013). Nutrition and hair: Deficiencies and supplements. Dermatologic Clinics, 31(1), 167–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.det.2012.08.015.
Fisher, M., & Cox, A. (2011). Four strategies used during intrasexual competition for mates. Personal Relationships, 18, 20–38. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-6811.2010.01307.x.
Fisher, M., Cox, A., & Gordon, F. (2009). Self-promotion versus competitor derogation: The influence of sex and romantic relationship status on intrasexual competition strategy selection. Journal of Evolutionary Psychology, 7(4), 287–308. https://doi.org/10.1556/JEP.7.2009.4.6.
Fisher, M. L., Tran, U. S., & Voracek, M. (2008). The influence of relationship status, mate seeking, and sex on intrasexual competition. Journal of Social Psychology, 148(4), 493–512. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.148.4.493-512.
Fiske, L., Fallon, E. A., Blissmer, B., & Redding, C. A. (2014). Prevalence of body dissatisfaction among United States adults: Review and recommendations for future research. Eating Behaviors, 15(3), 357–365. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.04.010.
Fletcher, G. J., Simpson, J. A., Campbell, L., & Overall, N. C. (2015). Pair-bonding, romantic love, and evolution: The curious case of Homo sapiens. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 10(1), 20–36. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691614561683.
Folstad, I., & Karter, A. J. (1992). Parasites, bright males, and the immunocompetence handicap. The American Naturalist, 139(3), 603–622. https://doi.org/10.1086/285346.
Foo, Y. Z., Nakagawa, S., Rhodes, G., & Simmons, L. W. (2017). The effects of sex hormones on immune function: A meta-analysis. Biological Reviews, 92(1), 551–571. https://doi.org/10.1111/brv.12243.
Foo, Y. Z., Simmons, L. W., & Rhodes, G. (2017). The relationship between health and mating success in humans. Royal Society Open Science, 4(1), 160603. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.160603.
Frederick, D. A., Buchanan, G. M., Sadehgi-Azar, L., Peplau, L. A., Haselton, M. G., Berezovskaya, A., & Lipinski, R. E. (2007a). Desiring the muscular ideal: Men’s body satisfaction in the United States, Ukraine, and Ghana. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 8(2), 103–117. https://doi.org/10.1037/1524-918.104.22.168.
Frederick, D. A., & Essayli, J. H. (2016). Male body image: The roles of sexual orientation and body mass index across five national US studies. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 17(4), 336–351. https://doi.org/10.1037/men0000031.
Frederick, D. A., Fessler, D. M., & Haselton, M. G. (2005). Do representations of male muscularity differ in men’s and women’s magazines? Body Image, 2(1), 81–86. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2004.12.002.
Frederick, D. A., Forbes, G. B., & Anna, B. (2008). Female body dissatisfaction and perceptions of the attractive female body in Ghana, the Ukraine, and the United States. Psihologijske Teme, 17(2), 203–219.
Frederick, D. A., & Haselton, M. G. (2007). Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness indicator hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(8), 1167–1183. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167207303022.
Frederick, D. A., & Jenkins, B. N. (2015). Height and body mass on the mating market: Associations with number of sex partners and extra-pair sex among heterosexual men and women aged 18–65. Evolutionary Psychology, 13, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704915604563.
Frederick, D. A., Lever, J., & Peplau, L. A. (2007b). Interest in cosmetic surgery and body image: Views of men and women across the lifespan. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 120(5), 1407–1415.
Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory: Toward understanding women’s lived experiences and mental health risks. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21(2), 173–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.
Frith, H., & Gleeson, K. (2004). Clothing and embodiment: Men managing body image and appearance. Psychology of Men & Masculinity, 5(1), 40–48. https://doi.org/10.1037/1524-922.214.171.124.
Gadalla, T., & Piran, N. (2007). Co-occurrence of eating disorders and alcohol use disorders in women: A meta analysis. Archives of Women’s Mental Health, 10(4), 133–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00737-007-0184-x.
Galbarczyk, A., & Ziomkiewicz, A. (2017). Tattooed men: Healthy bad boys and good-looking competitors. Personality and Individual Differences, 106, 122–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.10.051.
Gallup, G. G., Jr., & Frederick, D. A. (2010). The science of sex appeal: An evolutionary perspective. Review of General Psychology, 14(3), 240–250. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020451.
Gambla, W. C., Fernandez, A. M., Gassman, N. R., Tan, M. C., & Daniel, C. L. (2017). College tanning behaviors, attitudes, beliefs, and intentions: A systematic review of the literature. Preventive Medicine, 105, 77–87. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ypmed.2017.08.029.
Gangestad, S. W., Garver-Apgar, C. E., & Simpson, J. A. (2007). Changes in women’s mate preferences across the ovulatory cycle. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 92(1), 152–163. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199.
Gangestad, S. W., Haselton, M. G., & Buss, D. M. (2006). Evolutionary foundations of cultural variation: Evoked culture and mate preferences. Psychological Inquiry, 17(2), 75–95. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327965pli1702_1.
Gangestad, S. W., & Scheyd, G. J. (2005). The evolution of human physical attractiveness. Annual Review of Anthropology, 34, 523–548. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.anthro.33.070203.143733.
Gangestad, S. W., & Simpson, J. A. (2000). The evolution of human mating: Trade-offs and strategic pluralism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23(4), 573–587. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0140525X0000337X.
Gangestad, S. W., & Thornhill, R. (1997). Human sexual selection and developmental stability. In J. A. Simpson & D. T. Kenrick (Eds.), Evolutionary social psychology (pp. 169–195). New York: Psychology Press.
Geary, D. C. (2000). Evolution and proximate expression of human paternal investment. Psychological Bulletin, 126(1), 55–77. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.126.1.55.
Gilbert, R., & Uetz, G. W. (2016). Courtship and male ornaments as honest indicators of immune function. Animal Behaviour, 117, 97–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anbehav.2016.04.013.
Gildersleeve, K., Haselton, M. G., & Fales, M. R. (2014). Do women’s mate preferences change across the ovulatory cycle? A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140(5), 1205–1259. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035438.
Gintis, H. (2011). Gene–culture coevolution and the nature of human sociality. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1566), 878–888. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2010.0310.
Glassenberg, A. N., Feinberg, D. R., Jones, B. C., Little, A. C., & DeBruine, L. M. (2010). Sex-dimorphic face shape preference in heterosexual and homosexual men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39(6), 1289–1296. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-009-9559-6.
Goodin, S. M., Van Denburg, A., Murnen, S. K., & Smolak, L. (2011). “Putting on” sexiness: A content analysis of the presence of sexualizing characteristics in girls’ clothing. Sex Roles, 65(1–2), 1. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-011-9966-8.
Gosse, D., & Arnocky, S. (2012). The state of Canadian boyhood—beyond literacy to a holistic approach. In Education, 18(2), 67–97.
Grabe, S., Ward, L. M., & Hyde, J. S. (2008). The role of the media in body image concerns among women: A meta-analysis of experimental and correlational studies. Psychological Bulletin, 134(3), 460–476. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.134.3.460.
Grammer, K., Fink, B., Juette, A., Ronzal, G., & Thornhill, R. (2002). Female faces and bodies: N-dimensional feature space and attractiveness. In G. Rhodes & L. A. Zebrowitz (Eds.), Advances in visual cognition: Facial attractiveness: Evolutionary, cognitive, and social perspectives (Vol. 1, pp. 91–125). Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing.
Grammer, K., Renninger, L., & Fischer, B. (2004). Disco clothing, female sexual motivation, and relationship status: Is she dressed to impress? Journal of Sex Research, 41, 66–74. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224490409552214.
Gray, P. B., & Frederick, D. A. (2012). Body image and body type preferences in St. Kitts, Caribbean: A cross-cultural comparison with US samples regarding attitudes towards muscularity, body fat, and breast size. Evolutionary Psychology, 10, 631–655. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470491201000319.
Gray, R. D., Heaney, M., & Fairhall, S. (2003). Evolutionary psychology and the challenge of adaptive explanation. In K. Sterelny & J. Fitness (Eds.), From mating to mentality: Evaluating evolutionary psychology (pp. 247–268). New York: Psychology Press.
Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., Ackerman, J. M., Delton, A. W., Robertson, T. E., & White, A. E. (2012). The financial consequences of too many men: Sex ratio effects on saving, borrowing, and spending. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 102(1), 69–80. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0024761.
Grogan, S. (2008). Body image: Understanding body dissatisfaction in men, women, and children. Milton Park, England: Taylor and Francis.
Guéguen, N. (2012a). Tattoos, piercings, and sexual activity. Social Behavior and Personality, 40, 1543–1548. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2012.40.9.1543.
Guéguen, N. (2012b). Hair color and courtship: Blond women received more courtship solicitations and redhead men received more refusals. Psychological Studies, 57(4), 369–375. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12646-012-0158-6.
Guéguen, N. (2012c). Makeup and menstrual cycle: Near ovulation, women use more cosmetics. Psychological Record, 62(3), 541–548. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03395819.
Guéguen, N. (2013). Effects of a tattoo on men’s behavior and attitudes towards women: An experimental field study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(8), 1517–1524. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-013-0104-2.
Gurung, R. A., & Chrouser, C. J. (2007). Predicting objectification: Do provocative clothing and observer characteristics matter? Sex Roles, 57(1–2), 91–99. https://doi.org/10.1007/bf03395819.
Haiyan, H., & Jasper, C. (2004). Men and women: A comparison of shopping mall behavior. Journal of Shopping Center Research, 11(1–2), 114–131.
Hamilton, W. D., & Zuk, M. (1982). Heritable true fitness and bright birds: A role for parasites? Science, 218(4570), 384–387. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.7123238.
Hardon, A., Idrus, N. I., & Hymans, T. D. (2013). Chemical sexualities: The use of pharmaceutical and cosmetic products by youth in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Reproductive Health Matters, 21(41), 214–224. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0968-8080(13)41709-3.
Harden, A. J., Butler, S., & Scheetz, M. (1998). Body perceptions of bulimic and nonbulimic groups. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 87(1), 108–110. https://doi.org/10.2466/pms.19188.8.131.52.
Hargreaves, D., & Tiggemann, M. (2003). The effect of “thin ideal” television commercials on body dissatisfaction and schema activation during early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 32(5), 367–373. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024974015581.
Hargreaves, D. A., & Tiggemann, M. (2006). ‘Body image is for girls’: A qualitative study of boys’ body image. Journal of Health Psychology, 11(4), 567–576. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105306065017.
Harris, D. L., & Carr, A. T. (2001). Prevalence of concern about physical appearance in the general population. British Journal of Plastic Surgery, 54(3), 223–226. https://doi.org/10.1054/bjps.2001.3550.
Harris, M., Dunn, M., & Alwyn, T. (2017). Intrasexual competition as a potential influence on anabolic-androgenic steroid use initiation. Journal of Health Psychology, 24(9), 1210–1220. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105317692145.
Haselton, M. G., Mortezaie, M., Pillsworth, E. G., Bleske-Rechek, A., & Frederick, D. A. (2007). Ovulatory shifts in human female ornamentation: Near ovulation, women dress to impress. Hormones and Behavior, 51(1), 40–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yhbeh.2006.07.007.
Havlíček, J., Cobey, K. D., Barrett, L., Klapilová, K., & Roberts, S. C. (2015). The spandrels of Santa Barbara? A new perspective on the peri-ovulation paradigm. Behavioral Ecology, 26(5), 1249–1260. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arv064.
Havlíček, J., Třebický, V., Valentova, J. V., Kleisner, K., Akoko, R. M., Fialová, J., … Varella, M. A. C. (2017). Men’s preferences for women’s breast size and shape in four cultures. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(2), 217–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.10.002.
Hennighausen, C., Hudders, L., Lange, B. P., & Fink, H. (2016). What if the rival drives a Porsche? Luxury car spending as a costly signal in male intrasexual competition. Evolutionary Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1177/1474704916678217.
Henrich, J. (2011). A cultural species: How culture drove human evolution. Psychological Science Agenda, 25(11), 1169–1177.
Henrich, J., Heine, S. J., & Norenzayan, A. (2010). Most people are not WEIRD. Nature, 466(7302), 29. https://doi.org/10.1038/466029a.
Herbenick, D., Hensel, D., Smith, N. K., Schick, V., Reece, M., Sanders, S. A., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2013). Pubic hair removal and sexual behavior: Findings from a prospective daily diary study of sexually active women in the United States. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 10(3), 678–685. https://doi.org/10.1111/jsm.12031.
Herbenick, D., Schick, V., Reece, M., Sanders, S., & Fortenberry, J. D. (2010). Pubic hair removal among women in the United States: Prevalence, methods, and characteristics. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 7(10), 3322–3330. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2010.01935.x.
Hill, G. E. (1990). Female house finches prefer colourful males: Sexual selection for a condition-dependent trait. Animal Behaviour, 40, 563–572. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0003-3472(05)80537-8.
Hill, S. E., & Durante, K. M. (2011). Courtship, competition, and the pursuit of attractiveness: Mating goals facilitate health-related risk taking and strategic risk suppression in women. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 37(3), 383–394. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167210395603.
Hill, S. E., Rodeheffer, C. D., Griskevicius, V., Durante, K., & White, A. E. (2012). Boosting beauty in an economic decline: Mating, spending, and the lipstick effect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 103(2), 275–291. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028657.
Hinsz, V. B., Matz, D. C., & Patience, R. A. (2001). Does women’s hair signal reproductive potential? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 37(2), 166–172. https://doi.org/10.1006/jesp.2000.1450.
Holland, E., & Haslam, N. (2013). Worth the weight: The objectification of overweight versus thin targets. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37(4), 462–468. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684312474800.
Holliday, R., & Cairnie, A. (2007). Man-made plastic: Investigating men’s consumption of aesthetic surgery. Journal of Consumer Culture, 7(1), 57–78. https://doi.org/10.1177/1469540507073508.
Hosoda, M., Stone-Romero, E. F., & Coats, G. (2003). The effects of physical attractiveness on job-related outcomes: A meta-analysis of experimental studies. Personnel Psychology, 56(2), 431–462. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2003.tb00157.x.
Hudders, L., De Backer, C., Fisher, M., & Vyncke, P. (2014). The rival wears Prada: Luxury consumption as a female competition strategy. Evolutionary Psychology, 12(3), 570–587. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470491401200306.
Hughes, S. M., & Gallup, G. G. (2003). Sex differences in morphological predictors of sexual behavior: Shoulder to hip and waist to hip ratios. Evolution and Human Behavior, 24(3), 173–178. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(02)00149-6.
Hughes, K. A., Houde, A. E., Price, A. C., & Rodd, F. H. (2013). Mating advantage for rare males in wild guppy populations. Nature, 503(7474), 108–110. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature12717.
Hunt, K. A., Fate, J., & Dodds, B. (2011). Cultural and social influences on the perception of beauty: A case analysis of the cosmetics industry. Journal of Business Case Studies. https://doi.org/10.19030/jbcs.v7i1.1577.
Husak, J. F., & Swallow, J. G. (2011). Compensatory traits and the evolution of male ornaments. Behaviour, 148, 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1163/000579510X541265.
IBISWorld. (2020). Tanning salons in the US market size 2005–2025. Retrieved April 17, 2020, https://www.ibisworld.com/industry-statistics/market-size/tanning-salons-united-states/.
International Society of Aesthetic Plastic Surgeons (ISAPS). (2019). ISAPS international survey on aesthetic/cosmetic procedures performed in 2018. Retrieved April 17, 2020, https://www.isaps.org/wp-content/uploads/2019/12/ISAPS-Global-Survey-Results-2018-new.pdf.
Islam, P. S., Chang, C., Selmi, C., Generali, E., Huntley, A., Teuber, S. S., & Gershwin, M. E. (2016). Medical complications of tattoos: A comprehensive review. Clinical Reviews in Allergy and Immunology, 50(2), 273–286. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12016-016-8532-0.
Janif, Z. J., Brooks, R. C., & Dixson, B. J. (2014). Negative frequency-dependent preferences and variation in male facial hair. Biology Letters, 10(4), 20130958. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2013.0958.
Janif, Z. J., Brooks, R. C., & Dixson, B. J. (2015). Are preferences for women’s hair color frequency-dependent? Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 1(1), 54–71. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40750-014-0008-y.
Jirotkul, M. (1999). Operational sex ratio influences female preference and male–male competition in guppies. Animal Behaviour, 58(2), 287–294. https://doi.org/10.1006/anbe.1999.1149.
Johnsen, L. L., & Geher, G. (2017). Fashion as a set of signals in female intrasexual competition. In M. L. Fisher (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of women and competition (pp. 637–653). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Jokela, M. (2009). Physical attractiveness and reproductive success in humans: Evidence from the late 20th century United States. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30(5), 342–350. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.03.006.
Jones, D., Brace, C. L., Jankowiak, W., Laland, K. N., Musselman, L. E., Langlois, J. H., … Symons, D. (1995). Sexual selection, physical attractiveness, and facial neoteny: Cross-cultural evidence and implications [and comments and reply]. Current Anthropology, 36(5), 723–748.
Jones, B. C., Feinberg, D. R., Watkins, C. D., Fincher, C. L., Little, A. C., & DeBruine, L. M. (2013). Pathogen disgust predicts women’s preferences for masculinity in men’s voices, faces, and bodies. Behavioral Ecology, 24(2), 373–379. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/ars173.
Jones, B. C., Hahn, A. C., & DeBruine, L. M. (2019). Ovulation, sex hormones, and women’s mating psychology. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 23, 51–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2018.10.008.
Jones, A. L., & Kramer, R. S. S. (2016). Facial cosmetics and attractiveness: Comparing the effect sizes of professionally-applied cosmetics and identity. PLoS ONE, 11(10), e0164218. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164218.
Jones, A. L., Kramer, R. S., & Ward, R. (2014). Miscalibrations in judgements of attractiveness with cosmetics. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 67(10), 2060–2068. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2014.908932.
Jones, A. L., Russell, R., & Ward, R. (2015). Cosmetics Alter biologically-based factors of beauty: Evidence from facial contrast. Evolutionary Psychology, 13(1), 147470491501300. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470491501300113.
Julian, A. K., Bethel, J. W., Odden, M. C., & Thorburn, S. (2016). Sex differences and risk behaviors among indoor tanners. Preventive Medicine Reports, 3, 283–287. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmedr.2016.03.011.
Kamble, S., Shackelford, T. K., Pham, M., & Buss, D. M. (2014). Indian mate preferences: Continuity, sex differences, and cultural change across a quarter of a century. Personality and Individual Differences, 70, 150–155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.06.024.
Katrodia, A., Naude, M. J., & Soni, S. (2018). Consumer buying behavior at shopping malls: Does gender matter? Journal of Economics and Behavioral Studies, 10(1), 125–134. https://doi.org/10.22610/jebs.v10i1.2095.
Kellie, D., Blake, K., & Brooks, R. (2020). Behind the makeup: The effects of cosmetics on women’s self-objectification, and their objectification by others. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/SZBKV.
Kenrick, D. T., Keefe, R. C., Bryan, A., Barr, A., & Brown, S. (1995). Age preferences and mate choice among homosexuals and heterosexuals: A case for modular psychological mechanisms. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(6), 1166–1172. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2066.
Kilpatrick, M., Hebert, E., & Bartholomew, J. (2005). College students’ motivation for physical activity: Differentiating men’s and women’s motives for sport participation and exercise. Journal of American College Health, 54(2), 87–94. https://doi.org/10.3200/JACH.54.2.87-94.
Kim, E.-Y., & Kim, Y.-K. (2004). Predicting online purchase intentions for clothing products. European Journal of Marketing, 38, 883–897. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560410539302.
Knoesen, N., Thai Vo, S., & Castle, D. (2009). To be superman-the male looks obsession. Australian Family Physician, 38(3), 131–133.
Kokko, H., & Jennions, M. D. (2008). Parental investment, sexual selection and sex ratios. Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 21(4), 919–948. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1420-9101.2008.01540.x.
Kokko, H., & Johnstone, R. A. (2002). Why is mutual mate choice not the norm? Operational sex ratios, sex roles, and the evolution of sexually dimorphic and monomorphic signalling. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, 357(1419), 319–330. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2001.0926.
Kościński, K. (2013). Attractiveness of women’s body: Body mass index, waist–hip ratio, and their relative importance. Behavioral Ecology, 24(4), 914–925. https://doi.org/10.1068/p7378.
Koziel, S., Kretschmer, W., & Pawlowski, B. (2010). Tattoo and piercing as signals of biological quality. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(3), 187–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.09.009.
Krems, J. A., Rankin, A. M., & Northover, S. B. (2019). Women’s strategic defenses against same-sex aggression: Evidence from sartorial behavior. Social Psychological and Personality Science, 11, 770–781. https://doi.org/10.1177/1948550619882028.
Kruger, D. J. (2008). Male financial consumption is associated with higher mating intentions and mating success. Evolutionary Psychology, 6(4), 603–612. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470490800600407.
Kruger, D., & Byker, D. (2009). Evolved foraging psychology underlies sex differences in shopping experiences and behaviors. Journal of Social, Evolutionary, and Cultural Psychology, 3(4), 328–342. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0099312.
Krutak, L. (2015). The cultural heritage of tattooing: A brief history. In J. Serup, N. Kluger, & W. Bäumler (Eds.), Tattooed skin and health (pp. 1–5). Basel, Switzerland: Karger Publishers.
Kunst, A. (2019). Frequency of grooming chest hair among male U.S. consumers 2017, by age group. Statista. Retrieved May 1, 2020, https://www.statista.com/statistics/724750/chest-hair-grooming-frequency-men-us-age/.
Kvarnemo, C., & Forsgren, E. (2000). The influence of potential reproductive rate and variation in mate quality on male and female choosiness in the sand goby, Pomatoschistus minutus. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 48(5), 378–384. https://doi.org/10.1007/s002650000246.
Laidre, M. E., & Johnstone, R. A. (2013). Animal signals. Current Biology, 23(18), 829–833. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2013.07.070.
Laland, K., Matthews, B., & Feldman, M. W. (2016). An introduction to niche construction theory. Evolutionary Ecology, 30(2), 191–202. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10682-016-9821-z.
Laland, K. N., Sterelny, K., Odling-Smee, J., Hoppitt, W., & Uller, T. (2011). Cause and effect in biology revisited: Is Mayr’s proximate-ultimate dichotomy still useful? Science, 334(6062), 1512–1516.
Langlois, J. H., Kalakanis, L., Rubenstein, A. J., Larson, A., Hallam, M., & Smoot, M. (2000). Maxims or myths of beauty? A meta-analytic and theoretical review. Psychological Bulletin, 126(3), 390–423. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.126.3.390.
Lee, K. S., & Vaillancourt, T. (2018). Developmental pathways between peer victimization, psychological functioning, disordered eating behavior, and body mass index: A review and theoretical model. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 39, 15–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2018.01.004.
Lee, A. J., & Zietsch, B. P. (2011). Experimental evidence that women’s mate preferences are directly influenced by cues of pathogen prevalence and resource scarcity. Biology Letters, 7(6), 892–895. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2011.0454.
Lee, A. J., & Zietsch, B. P. (2015). Women’s pathogen disgust predicting preference for facial masculinity may be specific to age and study design. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36(4), 249–255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2014.12.001.
Lefevre, C. E., Ewbank, M. P., Calder, A. J., von dem Hagen, E., & Perrett, D. I. (2013). It is all in the face: Carotenoid skin coloration loses attractiveness outside the face. Biology Letters, 9(6), 20130633. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2013.0633.
Lei, X., & Perrett, D. (2020). Misperceptions of opposite-sex preferences for thinness and muscularity. British Journal of Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12451.
Lefevre, C. E., & Perrett, D. I. (2015). Fruit over sunbed: Carotenoid skin colouration is found more attractive than melanin colouration. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, 68(2), 284–293. https://doi.org/10.1080/17470218.2014.944194.
Leit, R. A., Pope, H. G., Jr., & Gray, J. J. (2001). Cultural expectations of muscularity in men: The evolution of Playgirl centerfolds. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 29(1), 90–93. https://doi.org/10.1002/1098-108X(200101)29:1%3c90:AID-EAT15%3e3.0.CO;2-F.
Lennon, S. J. (1990). Effects of clothing attractiveness on perceptions. Home Economics Research Journal, 18(4), 303–310. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077727X9001800403.
Lennon, S. J., Adomaitis, A. D., Koo, J., & Johnson, K. K. (2017). Dress and sex: A review of empirical research involving human participants and published in refereed journals. Fashion and Textiles, 4(1), 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40691-017-0101-5.
Lennon, S. J., & Rudd, N. A. (1994). Linkages between attitudes toward gender roles, body satisfaction, self-esteem, and appearance management behaviors in women. Family and Consumer Sciences Research Journal, 23(2), 94–117. https://doi.org/10.1177/1077727X94232002.
Leve, M., Rubin, L., & Pusic, A. (2012). Cosmetic surgery and neoliberalisms: Managing risk and responsibility. Feminism & Psychology, 22(1), 122–141. https://doi.org/10.1177/0959353511424361.
Lewis, D. M., Russell, E. M., Al-Shawaf, L., Ta, V., Senveli, Z., Ickes, W., & Buss, D. M. (2017). Why women wear high heels: Evolution, lumbar curvature, and attractiveness. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 1875. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01875.
Li, N. P., & Kenrick, D. T. (2006). Sex similarities and differences in preferences for short-term mates: What, whether, and why. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90(3), 468–489. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35220.127.116.118.
Li, N. P., Smith, A. R., Griskevicius, V., Cason, M. J., & Bryan, A. (2010). Intrasexual competition and eating restriction in heterosexual and homosexual individuals. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(5), 365–372. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.05.004.
Li, N. P., Valentine, K. A., & Patel, L. (2011). Mate preferences in the US and Singapore: A cross-cultural test of the mate preference priority model. Personality and Individual Differences, 50(2), 291–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.10.005.
Li, N. P., Yong, J. C., Tov, W., Sng, O., Fletcher, G. J., Valentine, K. A., … Balliet, D. (2013). Mate preferences do predict attraction and choices in the early stages of mate selection. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 105(5), 757–776. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0033777.
Liesen, L. (2013). The tangled web she weaves. In M. L. Fisher, J. R. Garcia, & R. Sokol-Chang (Eds.), Evolution’s empress: Darwinian perspectives on the nature of women (pp. 43–62). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Lippa, R. A. (2007). The preferred traits of mates in a cross-national study of heterosexual and homosexual men and women: An examination of biological and cultural influences. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36(2), 193–208. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-006-9151-2.
Little, A. C. (2014). Facial attractiveness. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Cognitive Science, 5(6), 621–634. https://doi.org/10.1002/wcs.1316.
Little, A. C., DeBruine, L. M., & Jones, B. C. (2011). Exposure to visual cues of pathogen contagion changes preferences for masculinity and symmetry in opposite-sex faces. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 278(1714), 2032–2039. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2010.1925.
Liu, W. Y., Lin, C. C., Lee, Y. S., & Deng, D. J. (2013). On gender differences in consumer behavior for online financial transaction of cosmetics. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, 58(1–2), 238–253. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcm.2012.08.010.
Locke, A., & Arnocky, S. (2020). Eating disorders. In T. K. Shackelford & V. A. Weekes-Shackelford (Eds). Encyclopedia of evolutionary psychological science (pp. 1–8). New York: Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16999-6_696-1.
Locke, A., Desrochers, J., & Arnocky, S. (2020). Induced mate abundance increases women’s expectations for engagement ring size and cost. Evolutionary Psychological Science, 6, 188–194. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40806-019-00214-z.
Loughnan, S., Baldissarri, C., Spaccatini, F., & Elder, L. (2017). Internalizing objectification: Objectified individuals see themselves as less warm, competent, moral, and human. British Journal of Social Psychology, 56(2), 217–232. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjso.12188.
Ludvico, L. R., & Kurland, J. A. (1995). Symbolic or not-so-symbolic wounds: The behavioral ecology of human scarification. Ethology and Sociobiology, 16(2), 155–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(94)00075-I.
Luoto, S. (2019). An updated theoretical framework for human sexual selection: From ecology, genetics, and life history to extended phenotypes. Adaptive Human Behavior and Physiology, 5(1), 48–102. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40750-018-0103-6.
Lynn, C. D., Dominguez, J. T., & DeCaro, J. A. (2016). Tattooing to “toughen up”: Tattoo experience and secretory immunoglobulin A. American Journal of Human Biology, 28(5), 603–609. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.22847.
Lynn, C. D., Howells, M., Herdrich, D., Ioane, J., Hudson, D., & Fitiao, S. T. U. (2019). The evolutionary adaptation of body art: Tattooing as costly honest signaling of enhanced immune response in American Samoa. American Journal of Human Biology. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajhb.23347.
Mafra, A. L., Varella, M. A. C., Defelipe, R. P., Anchieta, N. M., de Almeida, C. A. G., & Valentova, J. V. (2020). Makeup usage in women as a tactic to attract mates and compete with rivals. Personality and Individual Differences. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110042.
Maner, J. K., & Ackerman, J. M. (2020). Ecological sex ratios and human mating. Trends in Cognitive Science, 24, 98–100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2019.11.008.
Martins, Y., Tiggemann, M., & Churchett, L. (2008). Hair today, gone tomorrow: A comparison of body hair removal practices in gay and heterosexual men. Body Image, 5(3), 312–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2008.04.001.
McCabe, M. P., Ricciardelli, L., Waqa, G., Goundar, R., & Fotu, K. (2009). Body image and body change strategies among adolescent males and females from Fiji, Tonga and Australia. Body Image, 6, 299–303. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.06.001.
McIntosh, T. L., Lee, A. J., Sidari, M. J., Stower, R. E., Sherlock, J. M., & Dixson, B. J. (2017). Microbes and masculinity: Does exposure to pathogenic cues alter women’s preferences for male facial masculinity and beardedness? PLoS ONE, 12. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178206.
Meltzer, A. L., McNulty, J. K., Jackson, G. L., & Karney, B. R. (2014). Men still value physical attractiveness in a long-term mate more than women: Rejoinder to Eastwick, Neff, Finkel, Luchies, and Hunt (2014). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 106(3), 435–440. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0035342.
Meskó, N., & Bereczkei, T. (2004). Hairstyle as an adaptive means of displaying phenotypic quality. Human Nature, 15(3), 251–270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-004-1008-6.
Mesoudi, A. (2016). Cultural evolution: Integrating psychology, evolution and culture. Current Opinion in Psychology, 7, 17–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.copsyc.2015.07.001.
Meston, C. M., & Buss, D. M. (2009). Why women have sex: The psychology of sex in women’s own voices. New York: Times Books.
Mikulic, M. (2018). Global cosmetic surgery and procedures market 2016 vs. 2026. Statista. Retrieved April 16, 2020, https://www.statista.com/statistics/939420/cosmetic-surgery-and-procedures-market-worldwide/.
Mileva, V. R., Jones, A. L., Russell, R., & Little, A. C. (2016). Sex differences in the perceived dominance and prestige of women with and without cosmetics. Perception, 45(10), 1166–1183. https://doi.org/10.1177/0301006616652053.
Miller, G. F. (1998). How mate choice shaped human nature: A review of sexual selection and human evolution. In C. B. Crawford & D. L. Krebs (Eds.), Handbook of evolutionary psychology: Ideas, issues, and applications (pp. 87–129). London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.
Miller, G. (2009). Spent: Sex, evolution, and consumer behavior. New York: Penguin.
Mintel. (2004). Underwear retailing. London: Mintel.
Mogilski, J. K., Memering, S. L., Welling, L. L., & Shackelford, T. K. (2017). Monogamy versus consensual non-monogamy: Alternative approaches to pursuing a strategically pluralistic mating strategy. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(2), 407–417. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0658-2.
Montemurro, B., & Gillen, M. (2013). How clothes make the woman immoral: Impressions given off by sexualized clothing. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 31, 167–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/0887302X13493128.
Montemurro, B., & Siefken, J. M. (2014). Cougars on the prowl? New perceptions of older women’s sexuality. Journal of Aging Studies, 28, 35–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaging.2013.11.004.
Morin, A. J., Maïano, C., Scalas, L. F., Janosz, M., & Litalien, D. (2017). Adolescents’ body image trajectories: A further test of the self-equilibrium hypothesis. Developmental Psychology, 53(8), 1501–1521. https://doi.org/10.1037/dev0000355.
Morris, P. H., White, J., Morrison, E. R., & Fisher, K. (2013). High heels as supernormal stimuli: How wearing high heels affects judgements of female attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(3), 176–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.11.006.
Mortazavi, S., & Poelker, K. E. (2017). Women in Iran. In C. Brown, U. Gielen, J. Gibbons, & J. Kuriansky (Eds.), Women’s evolving lives (pp. 73–90). Berlin, Germany: Springer.
Mosher, C. E., & Danoff-Burg, S. (2005). Social predictors of sunscreen and self-tanning product use. Journal of American College Health, 54(3), 166–168. https://doi.org/10.3200/JACH.54.3.166-168.
Moss, J. H., & Maner, J. K. (2016). Biased sex ratios influence fundamental aspects of human mating. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(1), 72–80. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167215612744.
Motamedi, M. H. K., Ebrahimi, A., Shams, A., & Nejadsarvari, N. (2016). Health and social problems of rhinoplasty in Iran. World Journal of Plastic Surgery, 5(1), 75–76.
Moule, K. R., & Fisher, M. (2015). You can look but you cannot touch: Male behaviors observed in lingerie stores. Human Ethology Bulletin, 29(4), 4–17.
Muggleton, N. K., & Fincher, C. L. (2017). Unrestricted sexuality promotes distinctive short-and long-term mate preferences in women. Personality and Individual Differences, 111, 169–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2017.01.054.
Murray, S. B., Griffiths, S., & Mond, J. M. (2016). Evolving eating disorder psychopathology: Conceptualising muscularity-oriented disordered eating. British Journal of Psychiatry, 208(5), 414–415. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.115.168427.
Muscarella, F., & Cunningham, M. R. (1996). The evolutionary significance and social perception of male pattern baldness and facial hair. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17(2), 99–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(95)00130-1.
Nayeri, D. (2014, October 8). The complicated beauty of the Persian nose. Vice. Retrieved May 5, 2020, https://www.vice.com/en_ca/article/5gk7m8/shes-so-najoor-0000467-v21n10.
Neave, N., & Shields, K. (2008). The effects of facial hair manipulation on female perceptions of attractiveness, masculinity, and dominance in male faces. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(5), 373–377. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.05.007.
Nettersheim, J., Gerlach, G., Herpertz, S., Abed, R., Figueredo, A. J., & Brüne, M. (2018). Evolutionary psychology of eating disorders: An explorative study in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. Frontiers in Psychology, 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.02122.
Nicolas, S. C., & Welling, L. L. (2017). Women’s acceptance of cosmetic surgery across the menstrual cycle. Personality and Individual Differences, 115, 99–102. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.04.087.
Nowak, J., Pawłowski, B., Borkowska, B., Augustyniak, D., & Drulis-Kawa, Z. (2018). No evidence for the immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in male humans. Scientific Reports, 8(1), 7392. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25694-0.
Osterberg, E. C., Gaither, T. W., Awad, M. A., Truesdale, M. D., Allen, I., Sutcliffe, S., & Breyer, B. N. (2017). Correlation between pubic hair grooming and STIs: Results from a nationally representative probability sample. Sexually Transmitted Infections, 93(3), 162–166. https://doi.org/10.1136/sextrans-2016-052687.
Otterbring, T., Ringler, C., Sirianni, N. J., & Gustafsson, A. (2018). The Abercrombie & Fitch effect: The impact of physical dominance on male customers’ status-signaling consumption. Journal of Marketing Research, 55, 69–79. https://doi.org/10.1509/jmr.15.0247.
Parmentier, M. A. (2016). High heels. Consumption Markets & Culture, 19(6), 511–519. https://doi.org/10.1080/10253866.2016.1153830.
Paul, P. (2005). Pornified: How pornography is transforming our lives, our relationships, and our families. New York: Times Books.
Pawłowski, B., & Dunbar, R. I. (1999). Impact of market value on human mate choice decisions. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 266(1416), 281–285. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.1999.0634.
Pawlowski, B., & Koziel, S. (2002). The impact of traits offered in personal advertisements on response rates. Evolution and Human Behavior, 23, 139–149. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1090-5138(01)00092-7.
Pedersen, F. A. (1991). Secular trends in human sex ratios. Human Nature, 2(3), 271–291. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02692189.
Penke, L., & Asendorpf, J. B. (2008). Beyond global sociosexual orientations: A more differentiated look at sociosexuality and its effects on courtship and romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 95(5), 1113–1135. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3518.104.22.1683.
Pereira, K. J., da Silva, C. S. A., Havlíček, J., Kleisner, K., Varella, M. A. C., Pavlovič, O., & Valentova, J. V. (2019). Femininity–masculinity and attractiveness—Associations between self-ratings, third-party ratings and objective measures. Personality and Individual Differences, 147, 166–171. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.04.033.
Perilloux, C., & Buss, D. M. (2008). Breaking up romantic relationships: Costs experienced and coping strategies deployed. Evolutionary Psychology, 6(1), 164–181. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470490800600119.
Perilloux, C., Cloud, J. M., & Buss, D. M. (2013). Women’s physical attractiveness and short-term mating strategies. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(4), 490–495. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2012.10.028.
Pope, H. G., Jr., Olivardia, R., Gruber, A., & Borowiecki, J. (1999). Evolving ideals of male body image as seen through action toys. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 26(1), 65–72. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1098-108X(199907)26:1%3c65:AID-EAT8%3e3.0.CO;2-D.
Potter, W. J. (1993). Cultivation theory and research: A conceptual critique. Human Communication Research, 19(4), 564–601. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2958.1993.tb00313.x.
Prior, S. M., Fenwick, K. D., & Peterson, J. C. (2014). Adolescents’ reasons for tanning and appearance motives: A preliminary study. Body Image, 11(1), 93–96. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.09.004.
Prokop, P. (2016). Male preference for female pubic hair: An evolutionary view. Anthropologischer Anzeiger, 73(2), 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1127/anthranz/2016/0583.
Prokop, P., Rantala, M. J., & Fančovičová, J. (2012). Is plasticity in mating preferences adapted to perceived exposure to pathogens? Acta Ethologica, 15(1), 135–140. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10211-011-0118-5.
Prokop, P., & Švancárová, J. (2020). Wearing high heels as female mating strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2019.109558.
Provine, R. R., Cabrera, M. O., & Nave-Blodgett, J. (2013). Red, yellow, and super-white sclera. Human Nature, 24(2), 126–136. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-013-9168-x.
Prum, R. O. (2017). The evolution of beauty: How Darwin’s forgotten theory of mate choice shapes the animal world-and us. New York: Doubleday.
Puts, D. A. (2010). Beauty and the beast: Mechanisms of sexual selection in humans. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(3), 157–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.02.005.
Rahman, O., Fung, B. C., Chen, Z., Chang, W. L., & Gao, X. (2018). A study of apparel consumer behaviour in China and Taiwan. International Journal of Fashion Design, Technology and Education, 11(1), 22–33. https://doi.org/10.1080/17543266.2017.1298158.
Ramsey, S., Sweeney, C., Fraser, M., & Oades, G. (2009). Pubic hair and sexuality: A review. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 6(8), 2102–2110. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1743-6109.2009.01307.x.
Ramshida, A., & Manikandan, K. (2014). Cosmetic usage and its relation to sex, age, and marital status. International Journal of Social Science & Interdisciplinary Research, 3(3), 46–55.
Randall, V. A. (2008). Androgens and hair growth. Dermatologic Therapy, 21(5), 314–328. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-8019.2008.00214.x.
Randazzo, K. D., & Solmon, M. (2018). Exploring social norms as a framework to understand decisions to be physically active. Quest, 70(1), 64–80. https://doi.org/10.1080/00336297.2017.1335646.
Rantala, M. J. (2007). Evolution of nakedness in Homo sapiens. Journal of Zoology, 273(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00295.x.
Rantala, M. J., Pölkki, M., & Rantala, L. M. (2010). Preference for human male body hair changes across the menstrual cycle and menopause. Behavioral Ecology, 21(2), 419–423. https://doi.org/10.1093/beheco/arp206.
Read, B. (2011). Britney, Beyoncé, and me–primary school girls’ role models and constructions of the ‘popular’girl. Gender and Education, 23, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1080/09540251003674089.
Reynolds, T., Baumeister, R. F., & Maner, J. K. (2018). Competitive reputation manipulation: Women strategically transmit social information about romantic rivals. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 78, 195–209. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2018.03.011.
Rhodes, G., Simmons, L. W., & Peters, M. (2005). Attractiveness and sexual behavior: Does attractiveness enhance mating success? Evolution and Human Behavior, 26(2), 186–201. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2004.08.014.
Ricciardelli, L. A., & McCabe, M. P. (2003). A longitudinal analysis of the role of biopsychosocial factors in predicting body change strategies among adolescent boys. Sex Roles, 48(7–8), 349–359. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022942614727.
Rodd, F. H., Hughes, K. A., Grether, G. F., & Baril, C. T. (2002). A possible non-sexual origin of mate preference: Are male guppies mimicking fruit? Proceedings of the Royal Society of London, Series B: Biological Sciences, 269(1490), 475–481. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2001.1891.
Röder, S., Brewer, G., & Fink, B. (2009). Menstrual cycle shifts in women’s self-perception and motivation: A daily report method. Personality and Individual Differences, 47(6), 616–619. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2009.05.019.
Ross, R. (2008). Clothing: A global history. Cambridge, England: Polity.
Rowe, D. C., Vazsonyi, A. T., & Figueredo, A. J. (1997). Mating-effort in adolescence: A conditional or alternative strategy. Personality and Individual Differences, 23(1), 105–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-8869(97)00005-6.
Russell, R. (2011). Why cosmetics work. In R. B. Adams Jr., N. Ambady, K. Nakayama, & S. Shimojo (Eds.), The science of social vision (pp. 186–204). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Russell, R., Batres, C., Courrèges, S., Kaminski, G., Soppelsa, F., Morizot, F., & Porcheron, A. (2019). Differential effects of makeup on perceived age. British Journal of Psychology, 110(1), 87–100. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjop.12337.
Ruxton, G. D., & Wilkinson, D. M. (2011). Thermoregulation and endurance running in extinct hominins: Wheeler’s models revisited. Journal of Human Evolution, 61(2), 169–175. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhevol.2011.02.012.
Saad, G. (2013). Evolutionary consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 23(3), 351–371. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2013.03.002.
Saad, G., & Peng, A. (2006). Applying Darwinian principles in designing effective intervention strategies: The case of sun tanning. Psychology & Marketing, 23(7), 617–638. https://doi.org/10.1002/mar.20149.
Saad, G., & Stenstrom, E. (2012). Calories, beauty, and ovulation: The effects of the menstrual cycle on food and appearance-related consumption. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 22(1), 102–113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcps.2011.10.001.
Sabanoglu, T. (2019). Monthly amount consumers spend on clothing in the UK 2017, by gender. Statista. Retrieved April 16, 2020, https://www.statista.com/statistics/984162/monthly-amount-consumers-spend-on-clothing-uk-by-gender/.
Saito, S. (2017). Media exposure and thin-ideal internalization in the drive for thinness in Japanese women. Communication Research Reports, 34(2), 89–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/08824096.2016.1224174.
Salmon, C. (2018). Evolutionary perspectives on popular culture: State of the art. Evolutionary Studies in Imaginative Culture, 2(2), 47–66.
Sandel, A. A. (2013). Brief communication: Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 152(1), 145–150. https://doi.org/10.1002/ajpa.22333.
Sarwer, D. B., Crerand, C. E., & Gibbons, L. M. (2007). Cosmetic procedures to enhance body shape and muscularity. In J. K. Thompson & G. Cafri (Eds.), The muscular ideal: Psychological, social, and medical perspectives (pp. 183–198). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Schaedelin, F. C., & Taborsky, M. (2009). Extended phenotypes as signals. Biological Reviews, 84(2), 293–313. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-185X.2008.00075.x.
Schaefer, L. M., Burke, N. L., Calogero, R. M., Menzel, J. E., Krawczyk, R., & Thompson, J. K. (2018). Self-objectification, body shame, and disordered eating: Testing a core mediational model of objectification theory among White, Black, and Hispanic women. Body Image, 24, 5–12. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.10.005.
Schmitt, D. P., & Buss, D. M. (1996). Strategic self-promotion and competitor derogation: Sex and context effects on the perceived effectiveness of mate attraction tactics. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(6), 1185–1204. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1245.
Schwarz, S., & Hassebrauck, M. (2008). Self-perceived and observed variations in women’s attractiveness throughout the menstrual cycle—A diary study. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29(4), 282–288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2008.02.003.
Scott-Phillips, T. C., Dickins, T. E., & West, S. A. (2011). Evolutionary theory and the ultimate–proximate distinction in the human behavioral sciences. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(1), 38–47. https://doi.org/10.1177/1745691610393528.
Seeger, A. (1975). The meaning of body ornaments: A Suya example. Ethnology, 14(3), 211–224.
Segal, B., & Podoshen, J. S. (2013). An examination of materialism, conspicuous consumption and gender differences. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 37(2), 189–198. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2012.01099.x.
Sell, A., Lukazsweski, A. W., & Townsley, M. (2017). Cues of upper body strength account for most of the variance in men’s bodily attractiveness. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2017.1819.
Seock, Y. K., & Bailey, L. R. (2008). The influence of college students’ shopping orientations and gender differences on online information searches and purchase behaviours. International Journal of Consumer Studies, 32(2), 113–121. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2007.00647.x.
Shannon-Missal, L. (2016). Tattoo takeover: Three in ten Americans have tattoos, and most don’t stop at just one. The Harris Poll. Retrieved April 18, 2020, https://theharrispoll.com/tattoos-can-take-any-number-of-forms-from-animals-to-quotes-to-cryptic-symbols-and-appear-in-all-sorts-of-spots-on-our-bodies-some-visible-in-everyday-life-others-not-so-much-but-one-thi/.
Sherrow, V. (2001). For appearance’ sake: The historical encyclopedia of good looks, beauty, and grooming. Phoenix, AZ: Oryx Press.
Sherrow, V. (2006). Encyclopedia of hair: A cultural history. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group.
Shomaker, L. B., & Furman, W. (2010). A prospective investigation of interpersonal influences on the pursuit of muscularity in late adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Health Psychology, 15(3), 391–404. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105309350514.
Shuler, G. A., & McCord, D. M. (2010). Determinants of male attractiveness: “Hotness” ratings as a function of perceived resources. American Journal of Psychological Research, 6(1), 10–23.
Shuster, S. M., & Wade, M. J. (2003). Mating systems and strategies. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Simpson, J. A., & Gangestad, S. W. (1991). Individual differences in sociosexuality: Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(6), 870–883. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.1990.
Sinclair, R. D., English, D. R., & Giles, G. G. (2013). Are bald men more virile than their well thatched contemporaries? Medical Journal of Australia, 199(11), 811–812. https://doi.org/10.5694/mja13.11360.
Singh, D. (1993). Adaptive significance of female physical attractiveness: Role of waist-to-hip ratio. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(2), 293–307. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.523.
Singh, N. (2018). An exploratory study on identification of age/occupation wise brand experience factors for lingerie buying consumers. International Journal of Costume and Fashion, 18(1), 47–59. https://doi.org/10.7233/ijcf.2018.18.1.047.
Singh, D., Dixson, B. J., Jessop, T. S., Morgan, B., & Dixson, A. F. (2010). Cross-cultural consensus for waist–hip ratio and women’s attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(3), 176–181. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2009.09.001.
Singh, D., & Randall, P. K. (2007). Beauty is in the eye of the plastic surgeon: Waist-hip ratio (WHR) and women’s attractiveness. Personality and Individual Differences, 43, 329–340. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2006.12.003.
Skoda, K., Oswald, F., Brown, K., Hesse, C., & Pedersen, C. L. (2020). Showing skin: Tattoo visibility status, egalitarianism, and personality are predictors of sexual openness among women. Sexuality and Culture. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-020-09729-1.
Slater, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2016). Little girls in a grown up world: Exposure to sexualized media, internalization of sexualization messages, and body image in 6–9 year-old girls. Body Image, 18, 19–22. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.04.004.
Smith, K. L., Cornelissen, P. L., & Tovée, M. J. (2007). Color 3D bodies and judgements of human female attractiveness. Evolution and Human Behavior, 28(1), 48–54. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2006.05.007.
Smolak, L., & Murnen, S. K. (2011). Gender, self-objectification and pubic hair removal. Sex Roles, 65(7–8), 506–517. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9922-z.
Smolak, L., Murnen, S. K., & Myers, T. A. (2014). Sexualizing the self: What college women and men think about and do to be “sexy”. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 38, 379–397. https://doi.org/10.1177/0361684314524168.
Sng, O., Neuberg, S. L., Varnum, M. E., & Kenrick, D. T. (2018). The behavioral ecology of cultural psychological variation. Psychological Review, 125(5), 714–743. https://doi.org/10.1037/rev0000104.
Snowdon, C. T., Ziegler, T. E., Schultz-Darken, N. J., & Ferris, C. F. (2006). Social odours, sexual arousal and pairbonding in primates. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 361(1476), 2079–2089. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2006.1932.
Sorokowski, P., Kościński, K., Sorokowska, A., & Huanca, T. (2014). Preference for women’s body mass and waist-to-hip ratio in Tsimané men of the Bolivian Amazon: Biological and cultural determinants. PLoS ONE, 9. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105468.
Stankus, T. (2012). Reviews of science for science librarians: The evolutionary basis of human sexual attraction and competition for mates. Science & Technology Libraries, 31(3), 266–304. https://doi.org/10.1080/0194262X.2012.706187.
Starratt, V. G., & Shackelford, T. K. (2015). Mating effort. In P. Whelehan & A. Bolin (Eds.), The international encyclopedia of human sexuality. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118896877.wbiehs290.
Statista. (2015). Share of United Kingdom adults with tattoos in 2015, by age. Retrieved April 18, 2020, https://www.statista.com/statistics/530572/tattoo-percentages-by-age-uk/.
Steele, V. (2001). The corset: A cultural history. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Štěrbová, Z., Třebický, V., Havlíček, J., Tureček, P., Varella, M. A. C., & Valentova, J. V. (2018). Father’s physique influences mate preferences but not the actual choice of male somatotype in heterosexual women and homosexual men. Evolution and Human Behavior, 39(1), 130–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2017.09.002.
Stice, E., Spangler, D., & Agras, W. S. (2001). Exposure to media-portrayed thin-ideal images adversely affects vulnerable girls: A longitudinal experiment. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 20(3), 270–288. https://doi.org/10.1521/jscp.20.3.270.22309.
Stone, E. (2017). Do women compete for mates when men are scarce? Sex ratio imbalances and women’s mate competition cross-culturally. In M. L. Fisher (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of women and competition (pp. 249–264). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
Stone, N., Graham, C. A., & Baysal, I. (2017). Women’s engagement in pubic hair removal: Motivations and associated factors. International Journal of Sexual Health, 29(1), 89–96. https://doi.org/10.1080/19317611.2016.1228727.
Strelan, P., & Hargreaves, D. (2005). Reasons for exercise and body esteem: Men’s responses to self-objectification. Sex Roles, 53(7), 495–503. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-005-7137-5.
Sugiyama, L. S. (2005). Physical attractiveness in adaptationist perspective. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology (pp. 292–343). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Sugiyama, L. S. (2016). Physical attractiveness: An adaptationist perspective. In D. M. Buss (Ed.), The handbook of evolutionary psychology: Foundations (pp. 317–384). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
Sunderani, S., Arnocky, S., & Vaillancourt, T. (2013). Individual differences in mate poaching: An examination of hormonal, dispositional, and behavioral mate-value traits. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(4), 533–542. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-9974-y.
Sundie, J. M., Kenrick, D. T., Griskevicius, V., Tybur, J. M., Vohs, K. D., & Beal, D. J. (2011). Peacocks, Porsches, and Thorstein Veblen: Conspicuous consumption as a sexual signaling system. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(4), 664–680. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0021669.
Swami, V. (2012). Written on the body? Individual differences between British adults who do and do not obtain a first tattoo. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 53(5), 407–412. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2012.00960.x.
Swami, V., & Barrett, S. (2011). British men’s hair color preferences: An assessment of courtship solicitation and stimulus ratings. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52(6), 595–600. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2011.00911.x.
Swami, V., Begum, S., & Petrides, K. V. (2010). Associations between trait emotional intelligence, actual–ideal weight discrepancy, and positive body image. Personality and Individual Differences, 49(5), 485–489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2010.05.009.
Swami, V., & Furnham, A. (2007). Unattractive, promiscuous and heavy drinkers: Perceptions of women with tattoos. Body Image, 4(4), 343–352. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2007.06.005.
Swami, V., Furnham, A., & Joshi, K. (2008). The influence of skin tone, hair length, and hair colour on ratings of women’s physical attractiveness, health and fertility. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 49(5), 429–437. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9450.2008.00651.x.
Swami, V., & Tovée, M. J. (2005). Female physical attractiveness in Britain and Malaysia: A cross-cultural study. Body Image, 2(2), 115–128. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2005.02.002.
Symons, D. (1979). The evolution of human sexuality. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Symons, D. (1995). Beauty is in the adaptations of the beholder: The evolutionary psychology of human female sexual attractiveness. In P. R. Abramson & S. D. Pinkerton (Eds.), Sexual nature, sexual culture (pp. 80–118). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Takács, K. (2018). Discounting of evolutionary explanations in sociology textbooks and curricula. Frontiers in Sociology, 3, 24. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2018.00024.
Terry, G., & Braun, V. (2013). To let hair be, or to not let hair be? Gender and body hair removal practices in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Body Image, 10(4), 599–606. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.07.001.
Terry, G., & Braun, V. (2016). “I think gorilla-like back effusions of hair are rather a turn-off”: ‘Excessive hair’ and male body hair (removal) discourse. Body Image, 17, 14–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.01.006.
Thomas, A. G., Jonason, P. K., Blackburn, J., Kennair, L. E. O., Lowe, R., Malouff, J., … Li, N. P. (2020). Mate preference priorities in the East and West: A cross-cultural test of the mate preference priority model. Journal of Personality, 88, 606–620. https://doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12514.
Thornton, B., Ryckman, R. M., & Gold, J. A. (2013). Competitive orientations and women’s acceptance of cosmetic surgery. Psychology, 4(01), 67–72. https://doi.org/10.4236/psych.2013.41009.
Tiggemann, M., & Hodgson, S. (2008). The hairlessness norm extended: Reasons for and predictors of women’s body hair removal at different body sites. Sex Roles, 59(11–12), 889–897. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-008-9494-3.
Tiggemann, M., Martins, Y., & Churchett, L. (2008). Beyond muscles: Unexplored parts of men’s body image. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(8), 1163–1172. https://doi.org/10.1177/1359105308095971.
Tinbergen, N. (1951). The study of instinct. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Todd, P. M., Penke, L., Fasolo, B., & Lenton, A. P. (2007). Different cognitive processes underlie human mate choices and mate preferences. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104(38), 15011–15016. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0705290104.
Toerien, M., & Wilkinson, S. (2004). Exploring the depilation norm: A qualitative questionnaire study of women’s body hair removal. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 1(1), 69–92.
Tooke, W., & Camire, L. (1991). Patterns of deception in intersexual and intrasexual mating strategies. Ethology and Sociobiology, 12(5), 345–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(91)90030-T.
Transparency Market Research. (2018). Global market for self-tanning products to expand at steady CAGR of 5.3% during 2017–2026, observes TMR. Retrieved April 17, 2020, https://www.transparencymarketresearch.com/pressrelease/self-tanning-products-market.htm.
Trivers, R. (1972). Parental investment and sexual selection. In B. Campbell (Ed.), Sexual selection and the descent of Man (pp. 136–179). Chicago: Aldine de Gruyter.
Tsaousi, C., & Brewis, J. (2013). Are you feeling special today? Underwear and the ‘fashioning’ of female identity. Culture and Organization, 19(1), 1–21. https://doi.org/10.1080/14759551.2011.634196.
Tsarenko, Y., & Lo, C. J. (2017). A portrait of intimate apparel female shoppers: A segmentation study. Australasian Marketing Journal, 25(1), 67–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ausmj.2017.01.004.
Tybur, J. M., & Gangestad, S. W. (2011). Mate preferences and infectious disease: Theoretical considerations and evidence in humans. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 366(1583), 3375–3388. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2011.0136.
Tybur, J. M., Lieberman, D., & Griskevicius, V. (2009). Microbes, mating, and morality: Individual differences in three functional domains of disgust. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97(1), 103–122. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015474.
Uller, T. (2008). Developmental plasticity and the evolution of parental effects. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 23(8), 432–438. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2008.04.005.
Vaillancourt, T. (2013). Do human females use indirect aggression as an intrasexual competition strategy? Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 368(1631), 20130080. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2013.0080.
Vaillancourt, T., & Krems, J. A. (2018). An evolutionary psychological perspective of indirect aggression in girls and women. In S. M. Coyne & J. M. Ostrov (Eds.), The development of relational aggression (pp. 111–126). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Vaillancourt, T., & Sharma, A. (2011). Intolerance of sexy peers: Intrasexual competition among women. Aggressive Behavior, 37(6), 569–577. https://doi.org/10.1002/ab.20413.
Valentova, J. V., Bártová, K., Štěrbová, Z., & Varella, M. A. C. (2017a). Influence of sexual orientation, population, homogamy, and imprinting-like effect on preferences and choices for female buttock size, breast size and shape, and WHR. Personality and Individual Differences, 104, 313–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.08.005.
Valentova, J., Roberts, S. C., & Havlíček, J. (2013). Preferences for facial and vocal masculinity in homosexual men: The role of relationship status, sexual restrictiveness, and self-perceived masculinity. Perception, 42(2), 187–197. https://doi.org/10.1068/p6909.
Valentova, J. V., Stulp, G., Třebický, V., & Havlíček, J. (2014). Preferred and actual relative height among homosexual male partners vary with preferred dominance and sex role. PLoS ONE, 9(1), e86534. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0086534.
Valentova, J. V., Varella, M. A. C., Bártová, K., Štěrbová, Z., & Dixson, B. J. W. (2017b). Mate preferences and choices for facial and body hair in heterosexual women and homosexual men: Influence of sex, population, homogamy, and imprinting-like effect. Evolution and Human Behavior, 38(2), 241–248. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2016.10.007.
VanderLaan, D. P., & Vasey, P. L. (2008). Mate retention behavior of men and women in heterosexual and homosexual relationships. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 37(4), 572–585. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-006-9139-y.
Vandermassen, G. (2011). Evolution and rape: A feminist Darwinian perspective. Sex Roles, 64, 732–747. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-010-9895-y.
Varella, M. A. C., Santos, I. B. C., Ferreira, J. H. B. P., & Bussab, V. S. R. (2013). Misunderstandings in applying evolution to human mind and behavior and its causes: A systematic review. EvoS Journal: The Journal of the Evolutionary Studies Consortium, 5(1), 81–107.
Varella, M. A., Valentova, J. V., & Fernández, A. M. (2017). Evolution of artistic and aesthetic propensities through female competitive ornamentation. In M. L. Fisher (Ed.), The Oxford handbook of women and competition (pp. 757–783). Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Vartanian, L. R., Wharton, C. M., & Green, E. B. (2012). Appearance vs. health motives for exercise and for weight loss. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(3), 251–256. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychsport.2011.12.005.
Wacker, S., Mobley, K., Forsgren, E., Myhre, L. C., de Jong, K., & Amundsen, T. (2013). Operational sex ratio but not density affects sexual selection in a fish. Evolution, 67(7), 1937–1949. https://doi.org/10.1111/evo.12092.
Waldersee, V. (2019). One in six women wear makeup at the gym. YouGov. Retrieved April 16, 2020. https://yougov.co.uk/topics/lifestyle/articles-reports/2019/03/14/one-six-women-wear-makeup-gym.
Walsh, A., & Yun, I. (2016). Evoked culture and evoked nature: The promise of gene-culture co-evolution theory for sociology. Frontiers in Sociology, 1, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fsoc.2016.00008.
Walster, E., Aronson, V., Abrahams, D., & Rottman, L. (1966). Importance of physical attractiveness in dating behavior. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 4(5), 508–516. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0021188.
Walter, K. V., Conroy-Beam, D., Buss, D. M., Asao, K., Sorokowska, A., Sorokowski, P., … Zupančič, M. (2020). Sex differences in mate preferences across 45 countries: A large-scale replication. Psychological Science, 31(4), 408–423. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797620904154.
Walters, S., & Crawford, C. B. (1994). The importance of mate attraction for intrasexual competition in men and women. Ethology and Sociobiology, 15, 5–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/0162-3095(94)90025-6.
Wang, Y., & Griskevicius, V. (2014). Conspicuous consumption, relationships, and rivals: Women’s luxury products as signals to other women. Journal of Consumer Research, 40(5), 834–854. https://doi.org/10.1086/673256.
Webb, H. J., Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., Waters, A. M., Farrell, L. J., Nesdale, D., & Downey, G. (2017). “Pretty pressure” from peers, parents, and the media: A longitudinal study of appearance-based rejection sensitivity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 27(4), 718–735. https://doi.org/10.1111/jora.12310.
Winegard, B. M., Winegard, B. M., & Deaner, R. O. (2014). Misrepresentations of evolutionary psychology in sex and gender textbooks. Evolutionary Psychology, 12(3), 474–508. https://doi.org/10.1177/147470491401200301.
Wohlrab, S., Stahl, J., & Kappeler, P. M. (2007). Modifying the body: Motivations for getting tattooed and pierced. Body Image, 4(1), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bodyim.2006.12.001.
Wohlrab, S., Stahl, J., Rammsayer, T., & Kappeler, P. M. (2007). Differences in personality characteristics between body-modified and non-modified individuals: Associations with individual personality traits and their possible evolutionary implications. European Journal of Personality, 21(7), 931–951. https://doi.org/10.1002/per.642.
Yeung, H., & Chen, S. C. (2016). Sexual orientation and indoor tanning device use: A population-based study. JAMA Dermatology, 152(1), 99–101. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2015.2038.
Yoo, J., & Kim, H. (2014). Perceived negative health effect of tanning: The interface between tanning attitudes and behaviors. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 32(1), 6–19. https://doi.org/10.1177/0887302X13510601.
Zahavi, A. (1975). Mate selection—A selection for handicap. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 53(1), 205–214. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-5193(75)90111-3.
Zahavi, A., & Zahavi, A. (1997). The handicap principle. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.
Zarzycki, M. Z., Słyk, S., Price, S., & Flaga-Łuczkiewicz, M. (2019). Men’s muscularity image—The role among Polish young population. Men and Masculinities, 22(2), 404–411. https://doi.org/10.1177/1097184X18774112.
Zietsch, B. P., Lee, A. J., Sherlock, J. M., & Jern, P. (2015). Variation in women’s preferences regarding male facial masculinity is better explained by genetic differences than by previously identified context-dependent effects. Psychological Science, 26(9), 1440–1448. https://doi.org/10.1177/0956797615591770.
Zion Market Research. (2017). Cosmetic Products Market by Product (Skin care products, Haircare products, Color osmetics, Fragrances, Personal care products, and Oral care products), by Form (solutions, Creams, Lotions, Ointments, Suspensions, Tablets, Powders, Gels, Sticks, and Aerosols), by Application (Lips, Eyes, Eyebros, Nails, and Face), by Distribution Channel (Online, Beauty salons, Specialty stores, Direct selling, Departmental stores, Pharmacy, and Supermarkets), by Region (North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, Latin America, and the Middle East & Africa) – Global Industry Perspective, Comprehensive Analysis and Forecast, 2017–2024. Retrieved April 17, 2020, https://www.zionmarketresearch.com/report/cosmetic-products-market.
Zojaji, R., Keshavarzmanesh, M., Arshadi, H. R., Baf, M. M. F., & Esmaeilzadeh, S. (2014). Quality of life in patients who underwent rhinoplasty. Facial Plastic Surgery, 30(05), 593–596.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they had no conflict of interest for the current review.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Davis, A.C., Arnocky, S. An Evolutionary Perspective on Appearance Enhancement Behavior. Arch Sex Behav (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01745-4
- Physical attractiveness
- Appearance enhancement behavior
- Mating effort
- Evolutionary psychology