Porn Is for Masturbation

The Original Article was published on 16 July 2018

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  1. American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org/pi/women/programs/girls/report-full.pdf.

  2. Attwood, F., Smith, C., & Barker, M. (2018). “I”m just curious and still exploring myself’: Young people and pornography. New Media & Society,20(10), 3738–3759.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Baćak a, V., & Štulhofer, A. (2011). Masturbation among sexually active young women in Croatia: Associations with religiosity and pornography use. International Journal of Sexual Health,23(4), 248–257.

    Google Scholar 

  4. Balzarini, R. N., Dobson, K., Chin, K., & Campbell, L. (2017). Does exposure to erotica reduce attraction and love for romantic partners in men? Independent replications of Kenrick, Gutierres, and Goldberg (1989) study 2. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology,70, 191–197.

    Google Scholar 

  5. Basson, R. (2000). The Female Sexual Response: A different model. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,26(1), 51–65.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Bivona, J., & Critelli, J. (2009). The nature of women’s rape fantasies: An analysis of prevalence, frequency, and contents. Journal of Sex Research,46(1), 33–45.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Bogle, K. A. (2008). Hooking up: Sex, dating, and relationships on campus. New York City, NY: NYU Press.

    Google Scholar 

  8. Both, S., & Everaerd, W. (2002). Comment on “The Female Sexual Response: A Different Model”. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,28(1), 11–15.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Breines, J. G., Crocker, J., & Garcia, J. A. (2008). Self-objectification and well-being in women’s daily lives. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin,34(5), 583–598.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Brotto, L. A. (2013). Mindful sex. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality,22(2), 63–68.

    Google Scholar 

  11. Brown, M., Amoroso, D. M., & Ware, E. E. (1976). Behavioral effects of viewing pornography. Journal of Social Psychology,98(2), 235–245.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Brown, C. C., Durtschi, J. A., Carroll, J. S., & Willoughby, B. J. (2017). Understanding and predicting classes of college students who use pornography. Computers in Human Behavior,66, 114–121.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Campbell, L., & Kohut, T. (2017). The use and effects of pornography in romantic relationships. Current Opinion in Psychology,13, 6–10.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Carvalheira, A., Træen, B., & Stulhofer, A. (2015). Masturbation and pornography use among coupled heterosexual men with decreased sexual desire: How many roles of masturbation? Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,41(6), 626–635.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Chadwick, S. B., & van Anders, S. M. (2017). Do women’s orgasms function as a masculinity achievement for men? Journal of Sex Research,54(9), 1141–1152.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Chivers, M. L., & Bailey, J. M. (2005). A sex difference in features that elicit genital response. Biological Psychology,70(2), 115–120.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Cooper, D. T., & Klein, J. L. (2017). College students’ online pornography use: Contrasting general and specific structural variables with social learning variables. American Journal of Criminal Justice,43(3), 551–569.

    Google Scholar 

  18. Craig, S. L., McInroy, L., McCready, L. T., & Alaggia, R. (2015). Media: A catalyst for resilience in lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer youth. Journal of LGBT Youth,12(3), 254–275.

    Google Scholar 

  19. Critelli, J. W., & Bivona, J. M. (2008). Women’s erotic rape fantasies: An evaluation of theory and research. Journal of Sex Research,45(1), 57–70.

    Google Scholar 

  20. De Graaf, H., & Wijsen, C. (2017). Seksuele gezondheid in Nederland 2017. Rutgers.

  21. De keersmaecker, J., & Roets, A. (2017). “Fake news”: Incorrect, but hard to correct. The role of cognitive ability on the impact of false information on social impressions. Intelligence,65, 107–110.

    Google Scholar 

  22. Döring, N. (2000). Feminist views of cybersex: Victimization, liberation, and empowerment. Cyberpsychology & Behavior,3(5), 863–884.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Gagnon, J. H. (1985). Attitudes and responses of parents to pre-adolescent masturbation. Archives of Sexual Behavior,14(5), 451–466.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Garcia, J. R., Gesselman, A. N., Massey, S. G., Seibold-Simpson, S. M., & Merriwether, A. M. (2018). Intimacy through casual sex: Relational context of sexual activity and affectionate behaviours. Journal of Relationships Research,9, e12. https://doi.org/10.1017/jrr.2018.10.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Geer, J. H., & Bellard, H. S. (1996). Sexual content induced delays in unprimed lexical decisions: gender and context effects. Archives of Sexual Behavior,25(4), 379–395.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Grubbs, J. B., Wilt, J. A., Exline, J. J., & Pargament, K. I. (2018). Predicting pornography use over time: Does self-reported “addiction” matter? Addictive Behaviors,82, 57–64.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Herbenick, D., Mullinax, M., & Mark, K. (2014). Sexual desire discrepancy as a feature, not a bug, of long-term relationships: Women’s self-reported strategies for modulating sexual desire. Journal of Sexual Medicine,11(9), 2196–2206.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Hesse, C., & Pedersen, C. L. (2017). Porn sex versus real sex: How sexually explicit material shapes our understanding of sexual anatomy, physiology, and behaviour. Sexuality and Culture,21(3), 754–775.

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hipp, L. E., Low, L. K., & van Anders, S. M. (2012). Exploring women’s postpartum sexuality: Social, psychological, relational, and birth-related contextual factors. Journal of Sexual Medicine,9(9), 2330–2341.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Impett, E. A., Strachman, A., Finkel, E. J., & Gable, S. L. (2008). Maintaining sexual desire in intimate relationships: The importance of approach goals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,94(5), 808–823.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Kohut, T., Fisher, W. A., & Campbell, L. (2016). Perceived effects of pornography on the couple relationship: Initial findings of open-ended, participant-informed, “bottom-up” research. Archives of Sexual Behavior,46(2), 585–602.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Kohut, T., & Štulhofer, A. (2018). Is pornography use a risk for adolescent well-being? An examination of temporal relationships in two independent panel samples. PLoS ONE,13(8), e0202048.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  33. Korchmaros, J. D., Ybarra, M. L., & Mitchell, K. J. (2015). Adolescent online romantic relationship initiation: Differences by sexual and gender identification. Journal of Adolescence,40, 54–64.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  34. Kraus, S. W., Martino, S., & Potenza, M. N. (2016). Clinical characteristics of men interested in seeking treatment for use of pornography. Journal of Behavioral Addictions,5(2), 169–178.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  35. Kvalem, I. L., Træen, B., Lewin, B., & Štulhofer, A. (2014). Self-perceived effects of Internet pornography use, genital appearance satisfaction, and sexual self-esteem among young Scandinavian adults. Cyberpsychology: Journal of Psychosocial Research on Cyberspace,8(4), 5–22. https://doi.org/10.5817/cp2014-4-4.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Laan, E., Everaerd, W., & Evers, A. (1995). Assessment of female sexual arousal: Response specificity and construct validity. Psychophysiology,32(5), 476–485.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Laan, E., Martoredjo, D. K., Hesselink, S., Snijders, N., & van Lunsen, R. H. W. (2016). Young women’s genital self-image and effects of exposure to pictures of natural vulvas. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology,38(4), 249–255.

    Google Scholar 

  38. Leonhardt, N. D., Spencer, T. J., Butler, M. H., & Theobald, A. C. (2018). An organizational framework for sexual media’s influence on short-term versus long-term sexual quality. Archives of Sexual Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-018-1209-4.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Leung, A. K., & Robson, W. L. (1993). Childhood masturbation. Clinical Pediatrics,32(4), 238–241.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Ley, D. J. (2018). The pseudoscience behind public health crisis legislation. Porn Studies,5(2), 208–212.

    Google Scholar 

  41. Livingstone, S., & Helsper, E. (2009). Balancing opportunities and risks in teenagers’ use of the internet: The role of online skills and internet self-efficacy. New Media & Society,12(2), 309–329.

    Google Scholar 

  42. Macapagal, K., Moskowitz, D. A., Li, D. H., Carrión, A., Bettin, E., Fisher, C. B., & Mustanski, B. (2018). Hookup app use, sexual behavior, and sexual health among adolescent men who have sex with men in the United States. Journal of Adolescent Health,62(6), 708–715.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  43. Marcus, A. (2018). Journal corrects, but will not retract, controversial paper on internet porn. Retrieved December 1, 2018, from https://retractionwatch.com/2018/06/13/journal-corrects-but-will-not-retract-controversial-paper-on-internet-porn/.

  44. Mark, K. P. (2012). The relative impact of individual sexual desire and couple desire discrepancy on satisfaction in heterosexual couples. Sexual and Relationship Therapy,27(2), 133–146.

    Google Scholar 

  45. Matković, T., Cohen, N., & Štulhofer, A. (2018). The use of sexually explicit material and its relationship to adolescent sexual activity. Journal of Adolescent Health,62(5), 563–569.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. McCormack, M., & Wignall, L. (2016). Enjoyment, exploration and education: Understanding the consumption of pornography among young men with non-exclusive sexual orientations. Sociology,51(5), 975–991.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  47. McKee, A. (2007). The relationship between attitudes towards women, consumption of pornography, and other demographic variables in a survey of 1,023 consumers of pornography. International Journal of Sexual Health,19(1), 31–45.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Meltzer, A. L., McNulty, J. K., & Maner, J. K. (2015). Women like being valued for sex, as long as it is by a committed partner. Archives of Sexual Behavior,46(2), 475–488.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Mirkin, H. (2000). Sex, science, and sin: The Rind report, sexual politics, and American scholarship. Sexuality and Culture,4(2), 82–100.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Oliver, M. B., & Hyde, J. S. (1993). Gender differences in sexuality: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin,114(1), 29–51.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Parada, M., Gérard, M., Larcher, K., Dagher, A., & Binik, Y. M. (2016). Neural representation of subjective sexual arousal in men and women. Journal of Sexual Medicine,13(10), 1508–1522.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Perry, S. L. (2019). Is the link between pornography use and relational happiness really more about masturbation? Results from two national surveys. Journal of Sex Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2018.1556772.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Peterson, Z. D., & Janssen, E. (2007). Ambivalent affect and sexual response: The impact of co-occurring positive and negative emotions on subjective and physiological sexual responses to erotic stimuli. Archives of Sexual Behavior,36(6), 793–807.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Poulsen, F. O., Busby, D. M., & Galovan, A. M. (2013). Pornography use: Who uses it and how it is associated with couple outcomes. Journal of Sex Research,50(1), 72–83.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Prause, N. (2017). Evaluate models of high-frequency sexual behaviors already [Commentary]. Archives of Sexual Behavior,46(8), 2269–2274.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  56. Prause, N., & Siegle, G. (2019). Sexual compulsivity and sex film viewing do not impair partnered intimate experience. Manuscript submitted for publication.

  57. Prause, N., Steele, V. R., Staley, C., & Sabatinelli, D. (2015a). Late positive potential to explicit sexual images associated with the number of sexual intercourse partners. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience,10(1), 93–100.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Prause, N., Steele, V. R., Staley, C., Sabatinelli, D., & Hajcak, G. (2015b). Modulation of late positive potentials by sexual images in problem users and controls inconsistent with “porn addiction”. Biological Psychology,109, 192–199.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Prause, N., Steele, V. R., Staley, C., Sabatinelli, D., & Hajcak, G. (2016). Prause et al. (2015) The latest falsification of addiction predictions. Biological Psychology,120, 159–161.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Ramlagun, P. (2012). “Don’t call me weird, but I normally watch porn”—Girls, sexuality and porn. Agenda,26(3), 31–37.

    Google Scholar 

  61. Ramsey, L. R., Marotta, J. A., & Hoyt, T. (2016). Sexualized, objectified, but not satisfied. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships,34(2), 258–278.

    Google Scholar 

  62. Regnerus, M., Price, J., & Gordon, D. (2017). Masturbation and partnered sex: Substitutes or complements? Archives of Sexual Behavior,46(7), 2111–2121.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  63. Rosen, R. C. (2000). Prevalence and risk factors of sexual dysfunction in men and women. Current Psychiatry Reports,2(3), 189–195.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Salisbury, C. M. A., & Fisher, W. A. (2013). “Did you come?” A qualitative exploration of gender differences in beliefs, experiences, and concerns regarding female orgasm occurrence during heterosexual sexual interactions. Journal of Sex Research,51(6), 616–631.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  65. Santtila, P., Wager, I., Witting, K., Harlaar, N., Jern, P., Johansson, A. D., … Sandnabba, N. K. (2008). Discrepancies between sexual desire and sexual activity: Gender differences and associations with relationship satisfaction. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy,34(1), 31–44.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Séguin, L. J., Rodrigue, C., & Lavigne, J. (2018). Consuming ecstasy: Representations of male and female orgasm in mainstream pornography. Journal of Sex Research,55(3), 348–356.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Sescousse, G., Caldú, X., Segura, B., & Dreher, J.-C. (2013). Processing of primary and secondary rewards: A quantitative meta-analysis and review of human functional neuroimaging studies. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews,37(4), 681–696.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  68. Shor, E., & Seida, K. (2019). “Harder and harder”? Is mainstream pornography becoming increasingly violent and do viewers prefer violent content? Journal of Sex Research. https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2018.1451476.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  69. Sinnott, J. A., Brumberg, K., Wilson, K. M., Ebot, E. M., Giovannucci, E. L., Mucci, L. A., & Rider, J. R. (2018). Differential gene expression in prostate tissue according to ejaculation frequency. European Urology,74(5), 545–548.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  70. Smith, C., & Attwood, F. (2011). Lamenting sexualization: research, rhetoric and the story of young people’s “sexualization” in the UK Home Office review. Sex Education,11(3), 327–337.

    Google Scholar 

  71. Spišák, S. (2015). “Everywhere they say that it’s harmful but they don’t say how, so I’m asking here’: Young people, pornography and negotiations with notions of risk and harm. Sex Education,16(2), 130–142.

    Google Scholar 

  72. Sun, C., Bridges, A., Johnson, J. A., & Ezzell, M. B. (2016). Pornography and the male sexual script: An analysis of consumption and sexual relations. Archives of Sexual Behavior,45(4), 983–994.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Træen, B., & Daneback, K. (2013). The use of pornography and sexual behaviour among Norwegian men and women of differing sexual orientation. Sexologies,22(2), e41–e48.

    Google Scholar 

  74. Veit, M., Štulhofer, A., & Hald, G. M. (2016). Sexually explicit media use and relationship satisfaction: A moderating role of emotional intimacy? Sexual and Relationship Therapy,32(1), 58–74.

    Google Scholar 

  75. Voon, V., Mole, T. B., Banca, P., Porter, L., Morris, L., Mitchell, S., … Irvine, M. (2014). Neural correlates of sexual cue reactivity in individuals with and without compulsive sexual behaviours. PLoS ONE, 9(7), e102419.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  76. Willoughby, B. J., Carroll, J. S., Busby, D. M., & Brown, C. C. (2016). Differences in pornography use among couples: Associations with satisfaction, stability, and relationship processes. Archives of Sexual Behavior,45(1), 145–158.

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  77. Willoughby, B. J., Farero, A. M., & Busby, D. M. (2014). Exploring the effects of sexual desire discrepancy among married couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior,43(3), 551–562.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  78. Willoughby, B. J., & Vitas, J. (2012). Sexual desire discrepancy: The effect of individual differences in desired and actual sexual frequency on dating couples. Archives of Sexual Behavior,41(2), 477–486.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  79. Wright, P. J., Sun, C., Steffen, N. J., & Tokunaga, R. S. (2017). Associative pathways between pornography consumption and reduced sexual satisfaction. Sexual and Relationship Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1080/14681994.2017.1323076.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  80. Yost, M. R., & Hunter, L. E. (2012). BDSM practitioners’ understandings of their initial attraction to BDSM sexuality: Essentialist and constructionist narratives. Psychology and Sexuality,3(3), 244–259.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Nicole Prause.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Prause, N. Porn Is for Masturbation. Arch Sex Behav 48, 2271–2277 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-019-1397-6

Download citation