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HIV Testing Among Black and Hispanic/Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Mixed-Methods Study


Black and Latino men who have sex with men (BLMSM) accounted for 53% of males newly diagnosed with HIV in New York City (NYC) in 2015. Despite increased HIV testing efforts with BLMSM in the U.S. and specifically in areas like NYC with high rates of HIV, data show suboptimal testing among BLMSM in some high-prevalence areas of the country. Few reports describe the HIV testing perspectives of BLMSM at risk of HIV acquisition. We sought to obtain information from BLMSM at possible risk of HIV infection to learn about their HIV testing perspectives. During 2011–2012, we obtained baseline and 3-month follow-up computer questionnaire data and in-depth interview data from self-identified BLMSM in the NYC area who had not been recently tested for HIV. Quantitative demographic data were analyzed using SAS. Qualitative interview responses regarding personal experiences and thoughts about HIV testing were analyzed using applied thematic analysis. Overall, 109 BLMSM participated; 51 (46.85%) had never been tested for HIV; 43 (39.4%) were aged 18–29 years; 51 (46.8%) reported condomless sex at last sex. Qualitative analyses revealed three major themes: (1) perceptions on the NY State HIV opt-out HIV testing law; (2) HIV testing experiences; and (3) HIV testing and its role in the MSM community. These findings provide insight into HIV testing approaches and can be used to help strengthen HIV testing strategies for BLMSM in NYC.

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We thank the men who participated, the Center for HIV Educational Studies and Training, and the Gay Men of African Descent for their participation in and support of this study.


The findings and conclusions in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official views of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.


This study was supported with CDC’s Minority HIV/AIDS Research Initiative Award # U01PS000677.

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Correspondence to Kathryn Drumhiller.

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Nanin, J., Drumhiller, K., Gaul, Z. et al. HIV Testing Among Black and Hispanic/Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City: A Mixed-Methods Study. Arch Sex Behav 49, 2019–2027 (2020).

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  • HIV testing
  • Black/African American
  • Hispanic/Latino
  • Men who have sex with men
  • Sexual orientation