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Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: Reflections on Some Contemporary Clinical and Research Issues


This article provides an overview of five contemporary clinical and research issues pertaining to adolescents with a diagnosis of gender dysphoria: (1) increased referrals to specialized gender identity clinics; (2) alteration in the sex ratio; (3) suicidality; (4) “rapid-onset gender dysphoria” (ROGD) as a new developmental pathway; (5) and best practice clinical care for adolescents who may have ROGD.

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  1. 1.

    Aitken et al. (2015) also reported on the sex ratio of adolescents seen in the Toronto clinic between 1976 and 1998, where the male-to-female sex ratio was 1.51:1 (but corresponding clinical control data were not available).


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Zucker, K.J. Adolescents with Gender Dysphoria: Reflections on Some Contemporary Clinical and Research Issues. Arch Sex Behav 48, 1983–1992 (2019).

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  • Gender dysphoria
  • Gender identity
  • Rapid-onset gender dysphoria
  • Sex ratio
  • Suicidality
  • DSM-5