Recent outbreaks of serogroup C meningococcal disease in Southern California have led the California Department of Public Health to recommend the quadrivalent meningococcal vaccine (MenACWY) for gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBMSM) in Southern California. High-risk GBMSM have also been advised to utilize pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention. Data collected from a community-based sample of HIV-negative GBMSM in Los Angeles County (N = 476) were used in a multinomial logit regression analysis to identify patterns in MenACWY and PrEP usage and evaluate factors associated with use of both, one, or neither of these prevention methods. More than half (56%) of participants had neither been vaccinated nor used PrEP. A smaller percentage (34%) had either been vaccinated or were PrEP users, leaving 10% who had concomitant PrEP and MenACWY use. Higher education, more recent sex partners, illicit drug use, and recent receptive condomless anal sex (CAS) were significantly associated with greater odds of using both prevention methods relative to neither. Higher education, prior sexually transmitted infection diagnosis, more recent sex partners, and recent receptive CAS were significantly associated with greater odds of just PrEP use relative to neither. Higher education was the only factor significantly associated with greater odds of just MenACWY immunization relative to neither. Findings highlight important gaps in immunization among PrEP users and opportunities to screen for PrEP eligibility among GBMSM in conjunction with immunization. Public health practitioners should consider the ways in which strategies to increase PrEP and vaccine-preventable illnesses among GBMSM may complement one another.
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This study was funded by the University of California HIV/AIDS Research Program (Grant Number RP15-LA-007). Additional support was provided by the UCLA Center for HIV, Identification, Prevention, and Treatment Services funded by the National Institute of Mental Health (Grant Number P30MH058107) and Emory Center for AIDS Research. We would like to express our gratitude to all participants in this study and to our data collection team from the Luskin School of Public Affairs. We would also like to thank Michelle Parra, Laurel Fowler, Franklin Pratt, and Kathleen Sanchez from the Los Angeles County Department of Public Health Immunization Program, and Adam Cohen from AIDS Healthcare Foundation for their valuable contributions.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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Holloway, I.W., Tan, D., Bednarczyk, R.A. et al. Concomitant Utilization of Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) and Meningococcal Vaccine (MenACWY) Among Gay, Bisexual, and Other Men Who Have Sex with Men in Los Angeles County, California. Arch Sex Behav 49, 137–146 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-019-01500-4
- Men who have sex with men
- Sexual orientation