Human Life Histories are Flexible, Not Fixed
Luoto, Krams, and Rantala’s (2018) Target Article presents a wide-ranging review whose main purposes, as we understand them, are to (1) delineate differences in the biology and behavioral strategies of “butch” versus “femme” versus bisexual versus heterosexual women, (2) identify the causes, both proximate and ultimate, that lead to differences in these phenotypes, and (3) propose a novel hypothesis that synthesizes (1) and (2) essentially by suggesting that nonheterosexual women are, by various mechanisms, “masculinized,” with characteristics that reflect evolved strategies to engage in faster (more “masculine”) life histories. Two overarching goals of the article are laudable. First, using Tinbergen’s (1963) framework to integrate multiple levels of causality for a fuller understanding of same-sex sexuality could serve to advance related attempts in other areas of biology (Sherman, 1988) and to improve our understanding of the complex expression of the human sexuality spectrum....
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