Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 47, Issue 6, pp 1577–1589 | Cite as

Effects of Sexual Arousal and Alcohol Cues on Acute Motivation for Alcohol

  • Philip J. Spelman
  • Jeffrey S. Simons
Original Paper

Abstract

Reward-related stimuli can induce motivation to obtain rewards both within and across domains. We tested within- and cross-domain effects of environmental context (mock bar vs. laboratory) and sexually arousing stimuli (pornography vs. nature film) on acute motivation for alcohol as measured by a state-based alcohol purchase task in 109 male and female college students. Our results showed significant effects of both sexual arousal and environmental context on acute motivation for alcohol. A limited subsample analysis (N = 84) revealed significant effects of both sexual arousal and environmental context conditions on elasticity. Consistent with hypotheses, the presence of either sex- or alcohol-related cues increased acute motivation for alcohol and decreased sensitivity to costs of drinking. Furthermore, there was a significant video × laboratory condition interaction in the elasticity analysis. Our findings suggest that both sexually arousing stimuli and incidental environmental alcohol cues may significantly increase the effort one will expend to consume alcohol and thus the potential for risky drinking behavior. We believe this is the first experiment to use demand curves to present evidence of cross-domain effects of sexually arousing stimuli on acute motivation for alcohol.

Keywords

Sexual arousal Alcohol Purchase Task Demand curves Behavioral economics 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

References

  1. Acker, J., & MacKillop, J. (2013). Behavioral economic analysis of cue-elicited craving for tobacco: A virtual reality study. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 15, 1409–1416.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nts341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Aharon, I., Etcoff, N., Ariely, D., Chabris, C. F., O’Connor, E., & Breiter, H. C. (2001). Beautiful faces have variable reward value: fMRI and behavioral evidence. Neuron, 32, 537–551.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Amlung, M., Acker, J., Stojek, M. K., Murphy, J. G., & MacKillop, J. (2012). Is talk ‘cheap’? An initial investigation of the equivalence of alcohol purchase task performance for hypothetical and actual rewards. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 36, 716–724.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2011.01656.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Ariely, D., & Loewenstein, G. (2006). The heat of the moment: The effect of sexual arousal on sexual decision making. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19, 87–98.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bdm.501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Berger, J., & Shiv, B. (2011). Food, sex and the hunger for distinction. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21, 464–472.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bickel, W. K., & Vuchinich, R. E. (2000). Reframing health behavior change with behavioral economics. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  7. Blanton, H., & Gerrard, M. (1997). Effect of sexual motivation on men’s risk perception for sexually transmitted disease: There must be 50 ways to justify a lover. Health Psychology, 16, 374–379.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.16.4.374.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Blum, K., Werner, T., Carnes, S., Carnes, P., Bowirrat, A., Giordano, J., & Gold, M. (2012). Sex, drugs, and rock ‘n’ roll: Hypothesizing common mesolimbic activation as a function of reward gene polymorphisms. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 44, 38–55.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Carey, M. P., Carey, K. B., Weinhardt, L. S., & Gordon, C. M. (1997). Behavioral risk for HIV infection among adults with a severe and persistent mental illness: Patterns and psychological antecedents. Community Mental Health Journal, 33, 133–142.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Carvalho, J., Gomes, A. Q., Laja, P., Oliveira, C., Vilarinho, S., Janssen, E., & Nobre, P. (2013). Gender differences in sexual arousal and affective responses to erotica: The effects of type of film and fantasy instructions. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42, 1011–1019.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-013-0076-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Clapp, J. D., Min, J. W., Shillington, A. M., Reed, M. B., & Croff, J. K. (2008). Person and environment predictors of blood alcohol concentrations: A multi-level study of college parties. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 32, 100–107.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1530-0277.2007.00547.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Collins, A. M., & Loftus, E. F. (1975). A spreading-activation theory of semantic processing. Psychological Review, 82, 407–428.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295x.82.6.407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Crooks, R. L., & Baur, K. (2014). Our sexuality (12th ed.). Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, Cengage Learning.Google Scholar
  14. Dimeff, L. A., Baer, J. S., Kivlahan, D. R., & Marlatt, G. A. (1999). Brief alcohol screening and intervention for college students (BASICS): A harm reduction approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  15. Ditto, P. H., Pizarro, D. A., Epstein, E. B., Jacobson, J. A., & MacDonald, T. K. (2006). Visceral influences on risk-taking behavior. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 19, 99–113.  https://doi.org/10.1002/bdm.520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fattore, L., Melis, M., Fadda, P., & Fratta, W. (2014). Sex differences in addictive disorders. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 35, 272–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.04.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Fedoroff, I., Polivy, J., & Herman, C. P. (2003). The specificity of restrained versus unrestrained eaters’ responses to food cues: General desire to eat, or craving for the cued food? Appetite, 41, 7–13.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0195-6663(03)00026-6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gabel, P. C., Noel, N. E., Keane, T. M., & Lisman, S. A. (1980). Effects of sexual versus fear arousal on alcohol consumption in college males. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 18, 519–526.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0005-7967(80)90044-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Gentile, N. D., Librizzi, E. H., & Martinetti, M. P. (2012). Academic constraints on alcohol consumption in college students: A behavioral economic analysis. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 20, 390–399.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0029665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. George, W. H., Davis, K. C., Norris, J., Heiman, J. R., Stoner, S. A., Schacht, R. L., & Kajumulo, K. F. (2009). Indirect effects of acute alcohol intoxication on sexual risk-taking: The roles of subjective and physiological sexual arousal. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 38, 498–513.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-008-9346-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Graff, K. A., Murnen, S. K., & Krause, A. K. (2013). Low-cut shirts and high-heeled shoes: Increased sexualization across time in magazine depictions of girls. Sex Roles, 69, 571–582.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11199-013-0321-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Hursh, S. R., & Silberberg, A. (2008). Economic demand and essential value. Psychological Review, 115, 186–198.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.115.1.186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Jacobs, E. A., & Bickel, W. K. (1999). Modeling drug consumption in the clinic using simulation procedures: Demand for heroin and cigarettes in opioid-dependent outpatients. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 7, 412–426.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1064-1297.7.4.412.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Janssen, E., Carpenter, D., & Graham, C. A. (2003). Selecting films for sex research: Gender differences in erotic film preference. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 243–251.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Johnson, M. W., & Bickel, W. K. (2006). Replacing relative reinforcing efficacy with behavioral economic demand curves. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 85, 73–93.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  26. Kahler, C. W., Strong, D. R., & Read, J. P. (2005). Toward efficient and comprehensive measurement of the alcohol problems continuum in college students: The Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, 29, 1180–1189.  https://doi.org/10.1097/01.alc.0000171940.95813.a5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kim, B. K., & Zauberman, G. (2013). Can victoria’s secret change the future? A subjective time perception account of sexual-cue effects on impatience. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 142, 328–335.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0028954.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: Saunders.Google Scholar
  29. Kiselica, A. M., Webber, T. A., & Bornovalova, M. A. (2016). Validity of the Alcohol Purchase Task: A meta-analysis. Addiction, 111, 806–816.  https://doi.org/10.1111/add.13254.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Koukounas, E., & McCabe, M. P. (2001). Sexual and emotional variables influencing sexual response to erotica: A psychophysiological investigation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 30, 393–408.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Kringelbach, M. L., Stein, A., & van Hartevelt, T. J. (2012). The functional human neuroanatomy of food pleasure cycles. Physiology & Behavior, 106, 307–316.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2012.03.023.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lades, L. K. (2012). Towards an incentive salience model of intertemporal choice. Journal of Economic Psychology, 33, 833–841.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joep.2012.03.007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Li, X. (2008). The effects of appetitive stimuli on out-of-domain consumption impatience. Journal of Consumer Research, 34, 649–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Loewenstein, G. (1996). Out of control: Visceral influences on behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 65, 272–292.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. MacDonald, T. K., MacDonald, G., Zanna, M. P., & Fong, G. T. (2000). Alcohol, sexual arousal, and intentions to use condoms in young men: Applying alcohol myopia theory to risky sexual behavior. Health Psychology, 19, 290–298.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. MacKillop, J., & Lisman, S. A. (2007). Examining the effect of perceived availability on craving for alcohol: A quasi-experimental approach. Addiction Research & Theory, 15, 231–245.  https://doi.org/10.1080/16066350701407104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. MacKillop, J., & Murphy, J. G. (2007). A behavioral economic measure of demand for alcohol predicts brief intervention outcomes. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 89, 227–233.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.01.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. MacKillop, J., O’Hagen, S., Lisman, S. A., Murphy, J. G., Ray, L. A., Tidey, J. W., & Monti, P. M. (2010). Behavioral economic analysis of cue-elicited craving for alcohol. Addiction, 105, 1599–1607.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1360-0443.2010.03004.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  39. Maisto, S. A., Palfai, T., Vanable, P. A., Heath, J., & Woolf-King, S. E. (2012). The effects of alcohol and sexual arousal on determinants of sexual risk in men who have sex with men. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 971–986.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-011-9846-x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370–396.  https://doi.org/10.1037/h0054346.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Murphy, J. G., & MacKillop, J. (2006). Relative reinforcing efficacy of alcohol among college student drinkers. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 14, 219–227.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1064-1297.14.2.219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Murphy, J. G., MacKillop, J., Skidmore, J. R., & Pederson, A. A. (2009). Reliability and validity of a demand curve measure of alcohol reinforcement. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 17, 396–404.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017684.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Scott-Sheldon, L. A., Carey, K. B., Cunningham, K., Johnson, B. T., Carey, M. P., & Team, M. R. (2016). Alcohol use predicts sexual decision-making: A systematic review and meta-analysis of the experimental literature. AIDS and Behavior, 20, 19–39.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10461-015-1108-9.CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Sescousse, G., Rédoute, J., & Dreher, J.-C. (2010). The architecture of reward value coding in the human orbitofrontal cortex. Journal of Neuroscience, 30, 13095–13104.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Simons, J. S., Dvorak, R. D., & Lau-Barraco, C. (2009). Behavioral inhibition and activation systems: Differences in substance use expectancy organization and activation in memory. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 23, 315–328.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0015834.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Simons, J. S., Gaher, R. M., Oliver, M. N. I., Bush, J. A., & Palmer, M. A. (2005). An experience sampling study of associations between affect and alcohol use and problems among college students. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, 66(4), 459–469.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Skakoon-Sparling, S., Cramer, K. M., & Shuper, P. A. (2016). The impact of sexual arousal on sexual risk-taking and decision-making in men and women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 45, 33–42.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-015-0589-y.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Skidmore, J. R., Murphy, J. G., & Martens, M. P. (2014). Behavioral economic measures of alcohol reward value as problem severity indicators in college students. Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 22, 198–210.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036490.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Storbeck, J., & Clore, G. L. (2008). Affective arousal as information: How affective arousal influences judgments, learning, and memory. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 2, 1824–1843.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2008.00138.x.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  50. Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2013). Using multivariate statistics (6th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.Google Scholar
  51. Van den Bergh, B., Dewitte, S., & Warlop, L. (2008). Bikinis instigate generalized impatience in intertemporal choice. Journal of Consumer Research, 35, 85–97.  https://doi.org/10.1086/525505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Vuchinich, R. E., & Heather, N. (2003). Choice, behavioural economics and addiction. Amsterdam: Pergamon/Elsevier Science.Google Scholar
  53. Wadhwa, M., Shiv, B., & Nowlis, S. M. (2008). A bite to whet the reward appetite: The influence of sampling on reward-seeking behaviors. Journal of Marketing Research, 45, 403–413.  https://doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.45.4.403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ward, L. M. (2016). Media and sexualization: State of empirical research, 1995–2015. Journal of Sex Research, 53, 560–577.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00224499.2016.1142496.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (2004). Do pretty women inspire men to discount the future? Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 271, S177–S179.  https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2003.0134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Yurasek, A. M., Murphy, J. G., Clawson, A. H., Dennhardt, A. A., & MacKillop, J. (2013). Smokers report greater demand for alcohol on a behavioral economic purchase task. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, 74, 626–634.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South DakotaVermillionUSA

Personalised recommendations