Skip to main content

O Gay New World: Ramifications of the Maternal Immune Hypothesis

The Original Article was published on 12 June 2017

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Blanchard, R. (2017). Fraternal birth order, family size, and male homosexuality: Meta-analysis of studies spanning 25 years. Archives of Sexual Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-1007-4.

    Google Scholar 

  • Blanchard, R., & Bogaert, A. F. (1996). Homosexuality in men and number of older brothers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 153, 27–31.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blanchard, R., & Ellis, L. (2001). Birth weight, sexual orientation and the sex of preceding siblings. Journal of Biosocial Science, 33, 451–467.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blanchard, R., & Klassen, P. (1997). H–Y antigen and homosexuality in men. Journal of Theoretical Biology, 185, 373–378.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Blanchard, R., Zucker, K. J., Cavacas, A., Allin, S., Bradley, S. J., & Schachter, D. C. (2002). Fraternal birth order and birth weight in probably prehomosexual feminine boys. Hormones and Behavior, 41, 321–327.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Bogaert, A. F. (2006). Biological versus nonbiological older brothers and men’s sexual orientation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103, 10771–10774.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bogaert, A. F., & Skorska, M. (2011). Sexual orientation, fraternal birth order, and the maternal immune hypothesis: A review. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 32, 247–254.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Boysen, G. A., & Vogel, D. L. (2007). Biased assimilation and attitude polarization in response to learning about biological explanations of homosexuality. Sex Roles, 57, 755–762.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cantor, J. M., Blanchard, R., Paterson, A. D., & Bogaert, A. F. (2002). How many gay men owe their sexual orientation to fraternal birth order? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 31, 63–71.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Crowther, C. A., Middleton, P., & McBain, R. D. (2013). Anti-D administration in pregnancy for preventing rhesus alloimmunisation. Cochrane Database Systematic Review, 2. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD000020.pub2.

  • Glick, S. N., Cleary, S. D., & Golden, M. R. (2015). Increasing acceptance of homosexuality in the United States across racial and ethnic subgroups. Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, 70, 319–322.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Klein, S. L., Schiebinger, L., Stefanick, M. L., Cahill, L., Danska, J., De Vries, G. J., … Zucker, I. (2015). Opinion: Sex inclusion in basic research drives discovery. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112, 5257–5258.

  • Piskur, J., & Degelman, D. (1992). Effect of reading a summary of research about biological bases of homosexual orientation on attitudes toward homosexuals. Psychological Reports, 71, 1219–1225.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Shpigel, M. S., Belsky, Y., & Diamond, G. M. (2015). Clinical work with non-accepting parents of sexual minority children: Addressing causal and controllability attributions. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 46, 46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Skorska, M. N., Blanchard, R., VanderLaan, D. P., Zucker, K. J., & Bogaert, A. F. (2017). Gay male only-children: Evidence for low birth weight and high maternal miscarriage rates. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46, 205–215.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • VanderLaan, D. P., Blanchard, R., Wood, H., Garzon, L. C., & Zucker, K. J. (2015). Birth weight and two possible types of maternal effects on male sexual orientation: A clinical study of children and adolescents referred to a gender identity service. Developmental Psychobiology, 57, 25–34.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Vigil, J. M., Rowell, L. N., & Lutz, C. (2014). Gender expression, sexual orientation and pain sensitivity in women. Pain Research & Management, 19, 87–92.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

Funding was provided by Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (Grant No. PDF-502465-2017) and National Institute of Mental Health (Grant No. R21MH104780).

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to S. Marc Breedlove.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Swift-Gallant, A., Breedlove, S.M. O Gay New World: Ramifications of the Maternal Immune Hypothesis. Arch Sex Behav 47, 39–41 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-1118-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-017-1118-y

Keywords

  • Maternal Immune Hypothesis
  • Fraternal Birth Order Effect (FBOE)
  • Subsequent Sons
  • Skorska
  • Sexual Minorities