Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 46, Issue 6, pp 1685–1697 | Cite as

The Dual Role of Media Internalization in Adolescent Sexual Behavior

  • Ann Rousseau
  • Ine Beyens
  • Steven EggermontEmail author
  • Laura Vandenbosch
Original Paper


Sexualizing media content is prevalent in various media types. Sexualizing media messages and portrayals emphasize unattainable body and appearance ideals as the primary components of sexual desirability. The internalization of these ideals is positively related to self-objectification and sexual body consciousness. In turn, self-objectification and sexual body consciousness affect adolescents’ sexual behavior, albeit in opposing directions. While objectifying self-perceptions are linked to higher levels of sexual behavior, body consciousness during physical intimacy is linked to lower levels of sexual behavior. Based on this knowledge, the present three-wave panel study of 824 Belgian, predominant heterosexual adolescents (M age = 15.33; SD = 1.45) proposes a dual-pathway model that investigates two different pathways through which the internalization of media ideals may impact adolescents’ sexual behavior. An inhibitory pathway links media internalization to lower levels of sexual behavior through sexual body consciousness, and a supportive pathway links media internalization to higher levels of sexual behavior through self-objectification. Structural equation analyses supported the proposed dual-pathway, showing that the impact of media internalization on adolescents’ sexual behavior proceeds through an inhibitory pathway and a supportive pathway. Regarding the supportive pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted sexual behavior (W3), through valuing appearance over competence (W2). Regarding the inhibitory pathway, media internalization (W1) positively predicted body surveillance, which, in turn, positively predicted sexual body consciousness (all W2). Sexual body consciousness (W2) is negatively related to sexual behavior (W3). From a sexual developmental perspective, these findings emphasize the importance of guiding adolescents in interpreting and processing sexualizing media messages.


Media internalization Self-objectification Sexual body consciousness Sexual behavior Sexualizing media 



This study was funded by a grant from the Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) (Grant No. 1145212N) granted to the last author.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


  1. American Psychological Association (APA). (2007). Report of the APA Task Force on the Sexualization of Girls. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  2. Anderson, B. L., & Cyranowski, J. M. (1994). Women’s sexual self-schema. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1079–1100. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.67.6.1079.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Arbuckle, J. L. (2013). IBM SPSS Amos 22 user’s guide. Crawfordville, FL: Amos Development Corporation.Google Scholar
  4. Aubrey, J. S. (2006). Effects of sexually objectifying media on self-objectification and body surveillance in undergraduates: Results of a 2-year panel study. Journal of Communication, 56, 366–386. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00024.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aubrey, J. S. (2007). The impact of sexually objectifying media exposure on negative body emotions and sexual self-perceptions: Investigating the mediating role of body self-consciousness. Mass Communication and Society, 10, 1–23. doi: 10.1080/15205430709337002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bancroft, J., Graham, C. A., Janssen, E., & Sanders, S. A. (2009). The dual control model: Current status and future directions. Journal of Sex Research, 46, 121–142. doi: 10.1080/00224490902747222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bancroft, J., & Janssen, E. (2000). The dual control model of male sexual response: A theoretical approach to centrally mediated erectile dysfunction. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews, 24, 571–579. doi: 10.1016/S0149-7634(00)00024-5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Gender differences in erotic plasticity: The female sex drive as socially flexible and responsive. Psychological Bulletin, 126, 347. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.126.3.347.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bekalu, M. A., & Eggermont, S. (2015). Exposure to HIV/AIDS-related media content and HIV testing intention: Applying the integrative model of behavioral prediction. Mass Communication and Society, 18, 144–164. doi: 10.1080/15205436.2013.878362.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bessenoff, G. R. (2006). Can the media affect us? Social comparison, self-discrepancy, and the thin ideal. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 30, 239–251. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2006.00292.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bleakley, A., Hennessy, M., Fishbein, M., & Jordan, A. (2008). It works both ways: The relationship between exposure to sexual content in the media and adolescent sexual behavior. Media Psychology, 11, 443–461. doi: 10.1080/15213260802491986.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Bleakley, A., Hennessy, M., Fishbein, M., & Jordan, A. (2009). How sources of sexual information relate to adolescents’ beliefs about sex. American Journal of Health Behavior, 33, 37–48. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.33.1.4.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Bradley, K. (2013). (Re)presentations of (hetero)sexualized gender in Two and a Half Men: A content analysis. Journal of Gender Studies, 22, 221–226. doi: 10.1080/09589236.2012.752348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brotto, L. A., Heiman, J. R., & Tolman, D. L. (2009). Narratives of desire in mid-age women with and without arousal difficulties. Journal of Sex Research, 46, 387–398. doi: 10.1080/00224490902792624.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, J., L’Engle, K. L., Pardun, C., Guo, G., Kenneavy, K., & Jackson, C. (2006). Sexy media matter: Exposure to sexual content in music, movies, television and magazines predicts Black and White adolescents’ sexual behavior. Pediatrics, 117, 1018–1027. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2004.06.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Byrne, B. M. (2006). Structural equation modeling with EQS: Basic concepts, applications, and programming (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Inc.Google Scholar
  17. Calzo, J. P., Sonneville, K. R., Haines, J., Blood, E. A., Field, A. E., & Austin, S. B. (2012). The development of associations among body mass index, body dissatisfaction, and weight and shape concern in adolescent boys and girls. Journal of Adolescent Health, 51, 517–523. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.02.021.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Cash, T. F., Maikkula, C. L., & Yamamiya, Y. (2004). “Baring the body in the bedroom”: Body image, sexual self-schemas, and sexual functioning among college women and men. Electronic Journal of Human Sexuality, 7. doi: 10.1080/00926239608404917.Google Scholar
  19. Cheung, G. W., & Lau, R. S. (2008). Testing mediation and suppression effects of latent variables: Bootstrapping with structural equation models. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 296–325. doi: 10.1177/1094428107300343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9, 233–255. doi: 10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Claudat, K., & Warren, C. S. (2014). Self-objectification, body self-consciousness during sexual activities, and sexual satisfaction in college women. Body Image, 11, 509–515. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.07.006.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coy, M. (2013). Prostitution, harm and gender inequality: Theory, research and policy. Farnham, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  23. Curtin, N., Ward, L. M., Merriwether, A., & Caruthers, A. (2011). Femininity ideology and sexual health in young women: A focus on sexual knowledge, embodiment, and agency. International Journal of Sexual Health, 23, 48–62. doi: 10.1080/19317611.2010.524694.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Dakanalis, A., Carrà, G., Calogero, R., Fida, R., Clerici, M., Zanetti, M. A., & Riva, G. (2014). The developmental effects of media-ideal internalization and self-objectification processes on adolescents’ negative body-feelings, dietary restraint, and binge eating. European Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 24, 997–1010. doi: 10.1007/s00787-014-0649-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. DeVille, D. C., Ellmo, F. I., Horton, W. A., & Erchull, M. J. (2015). The role of romantic attachment in women’s experiences of body surveillance and body shame. Gender Issues, 32, 111–120. doi: 10.1007/s12147-015-9136-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Doornwaard, S. M., Bickham, D. S., Rich, M., Vanwesenbeeck, I., van den Eijnden, R. J., & Ter Bogt, T. F. (2014). Sex-related online behaviors and adolescents’ body and sexual self-perceptions. Pediatrics, 134, 1103–1110. doi: 10.1542/peds.2014-0592.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Dove, L. N., & Wiederman, M. N. (2000). Cognitive distraction and women’s sexual functioning. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 26, 67–78. doi: 10.1080/009262300278650.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Erchull, M. J., Liss, M., & Lichiello, S. (2013). Extending the negative consequences of media internalization and self-objectification to dissociation and self-harm. Sex Roles, 69, 583–593. doi: 10.1007/s11199-013-0326-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fine, M., & McClelland, S. (2006). Sexuality education and desire: Still missing after all these years. Harvard Educational Review, 76, 297–338. doi: 10.17763/haer.76.3.w5042g23122n6703.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fisher, D. A., Hill, D. L., Grube, J. W., Bersamin, M. M., Walker, S., & Gruber, E. L. (2009). Televised sexual content and parental mediation: Influences on adolescent sexuality. Media Psychology, 12, 121–147. doi: 10.1080/15213260902849901.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. Fitzsimmons-Craft, E. E., Harney, M. B., Koehler, L. G., Danzi, L. E., Riddell, M. K., & Bardone-Cone, A. M. (2012). Explaining the relation between thin ideal internalization and body dissatisfaction among college women: The roles of social comparison and body surveillance. Body Image, 9, 43–49. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2011.09.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Flynn, M. A., Park, S. Y., Morin, D. T., & Stana, A. (2015). Anything but real: Body idealization and objectification of MTV docusoap characters. Sex Roles, 72, 173–182. doi: 10.1007/s11199-015-0464-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Forbes, E. E., & Dahl, R. E. (2010). Pubertal development and behavior: hormonal activation of social and motivational tendencies. Brain and Cognition, 72, 66–72. doi: 10.1016/j.bandc.2009.10.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fredrickson, B. L., & Roberts, T. A. (1997). Objectification theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 21, 173–206. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1997.tb00108.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fuchs, C. (2011). New media, web 2.0 and surveillance. Sociology Compass, 5, 134–147. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-9020.2010.00354.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Grabe, S., Hyde, J. S., & Lindberg, S. M. (2007). Body objectification and depression in adolescents: The role of gender, shame, and rumination. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 31, 164–175. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2007.00350.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Graff, K. A., Murnen, S. K., & Krause, A. K. (2013). Low-cut shirts and high-heeled shoes: Increased sexualization across time in magazine depictions of girls. Sex Roles, 69, 571–582. doi: 10.1007/s11199-013-0321-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Graham, C. A., Sanders, S. A., Milhausen, R. R., & McBride, K. R. (2004). Turning on and turning off: A focus group study of the factors that affect women’s sexual arousal. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 33, 527–538. doi: 10.1023/B:ASEB.0000044737.62561.fd.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Gunter, B. (2014). Media and the sexualization of childhood. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  40. Guo, W., & Nathanson, A. I. (2011). The effects of parental mediation of sexual content on the sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of adolescents in the US. Journal of Children and Media, 5, 358–378. doi: 10.1080/17482798.2011.587141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Honaker, J., & King, G. (2010). What to do about missing values in time-series cross-section data. American Journal of Political Science, 54, 561–581. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-5907.2010.00447.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Impett, E. A., Schooler, D., & Tolman, D. L. (2006). To be seen and not heard: Femininity ideology and adolescent girls’ sexual health. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 35, 129–142. doi: 10.1007/s10508-005-9016-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Janssen, E., & Bancroft, J. (2007). The dual-control model: The role of sexual inhibition and excitation in sexual arousal and behavior. In E. Janssen (Ed.), The psychophysiology of sex (pp. 197–222). Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Janssen, E., Vorst, H., Finn, P., & Bancroft, J. (2002). The Sexual Inhibition (SIS) and Sexual Excitation (SES) Scales: II. Predicting psychophysiological response patterns. Journal of Sex Research, 39, 127–132. doi: 10.1080/00224490209552131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Jöreskog, K. G. (1971). Simultaneous factor analysis in several populations. Psychometrika, 36, 409–426. doi: 10.1007/BF02291366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Knauss, C., Paxton, S. J., & Alsaker, F. D. (2008). Body dissatisfaction in adolescent boys and girls: Objectified body consciousness, internalization of the media body ideal and perceived pressure from media. Sex Roles, 59, 633–643. doi: 10.1007/s11199-008-9474-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. La Rocque, C. L., & Cioe, J. (2011). An evaluation of the relationship between body image and sexual avoidance. Journal of Sex Research, 48, 397–408. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2010.499522.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Li, C. C., Rew, L., & Chen, L. (2015). Factors affecting sexual function: A comparison between women with gynecological or rectal cancer and healthy controls. Nursing and Health Sciences, 17, 105–111. doi: 10.1111/nhs.12177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Lude, M.-T., Pittet, I., Berchtold, A., Akre, C., Michaud, P.-A., & Suris, J.-C. (2011). Associations between online pornography and sexual behavior among adolescents: Myth or reality? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 40, 1027–1035. doi: 10.1007/s10508-010-9714-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Martino, S. C., Collins, R. L., Elliott, M. N., Strachman, A., Kanouse, D. E., & Berry, S. H. (2006). Exposure to degrading versus nondegrading music lyrics and sexual behavior among youth. Pediatrics, 118, e430–e441. doi: 10.1542/peds.2006-0131.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. McKinley, N. M., & Hyde, J. S. (1996). The Objectified Body Consciousness Scale: Development and validation. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 20, 181–215. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1996.tb00467.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. McLean, S. A., Paxton, S. J., & Wertheim, E. H. (2013). Mediators of the relationship between media literacy and body dissatisfaction in early adolescent girls: Implications for prevention. Body Image, 10, 282–289. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.01.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Meana, M., & Nunnink, S. E. (2006). Gender differences in the content of cognitive distraction during sex. Journal of Sex Research, 43, 59–67. doi: 10.1080/00224490609552299.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Milhausen, R. R., Buchholz, A. C., Opperman, E. A., & Benson, L. E. (2015). Relationships between body image, body composition, sexual functioning, and sexual satisfaction among heterosexual young adults. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 1621–1633. doi: 10.1007/s10508-014-0328-9.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Miner-Rubino, K., Twenge, J. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (2002). Trait self-objectification in women: Affective and personality correlates. Journal of Research in Personality, 36, 147–172. doi: 10.1006/jrpe.2001.2343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Moradi, B., & Huang, Y. P. (2008). Objectification theory and psychology of women: A decade of advances and future directions. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 32, 377–398. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.00452.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Noll, S. M., & Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). A mediational model linking self-objectification, body shame, and disordered eating. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 22, 623–636. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.1998.tb00181.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Northup, T., & Liebler, C. M. (2010). The good, the bad, and the beautiful: Beauty ideals on the Disney and Nickelodeon channels. Journal of Children and Media, 4, 265–282. doi: 10.1080/17482798.2010.496917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Nowatzki, J., & Morry, M. M. (2009). Women’s intentions regarding, and acceptance of, self-sexualizing behavior. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 33, 95–107. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6402.2008.01477.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. O’Hara, R. E., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Li, Z., & Sargent, J. D. (2012). Greater exposure to sexual content in popular movies predicts earlier sexual debut and increased sexual risk taking. Psychological Science, 23, 984–993. doi: 10.1177/0956797611435529.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  61. Pearson, M. R., Kholodkov, T., Henson, J. M., & Impett, E. A. (2012). Pathways to early coital debut for adolescent girls: A recursive partitioning analysis. Journal of Sex Research, 49, 13–26. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2011.565428.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Primack, B. A., & Hobbs, R. (2009). Association of various components of media literacy and adolescent smoking. American Journal of Health Behavior, 33, 192–201. doi: 10.5993/AJHB.33.2.8.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  63. Ramsey, L. R., & Hoyt, T. (2015). The object of desire how being objectified creates sexual pressure for women in heterosexual relationships. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 39, 151–170. doi: 10.1177/0361684314544679.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Reissing, E. D., Laliberté, G. M., & Davis, H. J. (2005). Young women’s sexual adjustment: The role of sexual self-schema, sexual self-efficacy, sexual aversion and body attitudes. Canadian Journal of Human Sexuality, 14, 77–85.Google Scholar
  65. Rivadeneyra, R., & Lebo, M. J. (2008). The association between television-viewing behaviors and adolescent dating role attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Adolescence, 31, 291–305. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2007.06.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Rohlinger, D. A. (2002). Eroticizing men: Cultural influences on advertising and male objectification. Sex Roles, 46, 61–74. doi: 10.1023/A:1016575909173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Savin-Williams, R. C., & Diamond, L. M. (2004). Sex. In R. M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of adolescent psychology (2nd ed., pp. 189–231). New York, NY: Wiley.Google Scholar
  68. Schooler, D., Ward, L. M., Merriwether, A., & Caruthers, A. S. (2005). Cycles of shame: Menstrual shame, body shame, and sexual decision-making. Journal of Sex Research, 42, 324–334. doi: 10.1080/00224490509552288.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Steer, A., & Tiggemann, M. (2008). The role of self-objectification in women’s sexual functioning. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 27, 205–225. doi: 10.1521/jscp.2008.27.3.205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Steinberg, L., & Monahan, K. C. (2011). Adolescents’ exposure to sexy media does not hasten the initiation of sexual intercourse. Developmental Psychology, 47, 562–576. doi: 10.1037/a0020613.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Swami, V., Taylor, R., & Carvalho, C. (2011). Body dissatisfaction assessed by the photographic figure rating scale is associated with sociocultural, personality, and media influences. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 52, 57–63. doi: 10.1111/j.14679450.2010.00836.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Thompson, J. K., & Stice, E. (2001). Thin-ideal internalization: Mounting evidence for a new risk factor for body-image disturbance and eating pathology. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10, 181–183. doi: 10.1111/1467-8721.00144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Thompson, J. K., van den Berg, P., Roehrig, M., Guarda, A. S., & Heinberg, L. J. (2004). The Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale-3 (SATAQ-3): Development and validation. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 35, 293–304. doi: 10.1002/eat.10257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Tiggemann, M., & Williams, E. (2012). The role of self-objectification in disordered eating, depressed mood, and sexual functioning among women a comprehensive test of objectification theory. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 36, 66–75. doi: 10.1177/0361684311420250.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Toates, F. (2009). An integrative theoretical framework for understanding sexual motivation, arousal, and behavior. Journal of Sex Research, 46, 168–193. doi: 10.1080/00224490902747768.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Tolman, D. L. (2013). It’s bad for us too. How the sexualization of girls impacts the sexuality of boys, men and women. In E. Zurbriggen & T. Roberts (Eds.), The sexualization of girls and girlhood: Causes, consequences, and resistance (pp. 84–106). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  77. Tolman, D. L., & McClelland, S. I. (2011). Normative sexuality development in adolescence: A decade in review, 2000–2009. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 21, 242–255. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2010.00726.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Valkenburg, P. M., Peter, J., & Walther, J. B. (2016). Media effects: Theory and research. Annual Review of Psychology, 67, 315–338. doi: 10.1146/annurev-psych-122414-033608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. van den Brink, F., Smeets, M. A., Hessen, D. J., Talens, J. G., & Woertman, L. (2013). Body satisfaction and sexual health in Dutch female university students. Journal of Sex Research, 50, 786–794. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2012.684250.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Van Oosten, J., Peter, J., & Vandenbosch, L. (2015). Adolescents’ sexual media use and casual sex: An investigation of the prototype-willingness model. Paper presented at the International Communication Association meeting, San Juan, Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  81. Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2012). Understanding sexual objectification: A comprehensive approach toward media exposure and girls’ internalization of beauty ideals, self-objectification, and body surveillance. Journal of Communication, 62, 869–887. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01667.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2013). Sexualization of adolescent boys: Media exposure and boys’ internalization of appearance ideals, self-objectification, and body surveillance. Men and Masculinities, 16, 283–306. doi: 10.1177/1097184X13477866.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2014). The three-step process of self-objectification: Potential implications for adolescents’ body consciousness during sexual activity. Body Image, 11, 77–80. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2013.10.005.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2015). The role of mass media in adolescents’ sexual behaviors: Exploring the explanatory value of the three-step self-objectification process. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 44, 729–742. doi: 10.1007/s10508-014-0292-4.Google Scholar
  85. Ward, L. M. (1995). Talking about sex: Common themes about sexuality in the prime-time television programs children and adolescents view most. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 24, 595–615. doi: 10.1007/BF01537058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Ward, L. M. (2003). Understanding the role of entertainment media in the sexual socialization of American youth: A review of empirical research. Developmental Review, 23, 347–388. doi: 10.1016/S0273-2297(03)00013-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ward, L. M. (2016). Media and sexualization: State of empirical research, 1995–2015. Journal of Sex Research, 53, 560–577. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2016.1142496.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Weaver, A. D., & Byers, E. S. (2013). Eye of the beholder? Sociocultural factors in the body image and sexual well-being of heterosexual women. International Journal of Sexual Health, 25, 128–147. doi: 10.1080/19317611.2012.737446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Wiederman, M. W. (2000). Women’s body image self-consciousness during physical intimacy with a partner. Journal of Sex Research, 37, 60–68. doi: 10.1080/00224490009552021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Wiederman, M. W., & Sarin, S. (2014). Body image and sexuality. In Y. M. Binik & K. S. K. Hall (Eds.), Principles and practices of sex therapy (5th ed., pp. 359–374). New York, NY: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  91. Wilksch, S. M., Tiggemann, M., & Wade, T. D. (2006). Impact of interactive school-based media literacy lessons for reducing internalization of media ideals in young adolescent girls and boys. International Journal of Eating Disorders, 39, 385–393. doi: 10.1002/eat.20237.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Yamamiya, Y., Cash, T. F., & Thompson, J. K. (2006). Sexual experiences among college women: The differential effects of general versus contextual body images on sexuality. Sex Roles, 55, 421–427. doi: 10.1007/s11199-006-9096-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ybarra, M. L., Strasburger, V. C., & Mitchell, K. J. (2014). Sexual media exposure, sexual behavior, and sexual violence victimization in adolescence. Clinical Pediatrics, 53, 1239–1247. doi: 10.1177/0009922814538700.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Zurbriggen, E., & Roberts, T. A. (2013). The sexualization of girls and girlhood: Causes, consequences and resistance. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ann Rousseau
    • 1
  • Ine Beyens
    • 2
  • Steven Eggermont
    • 1
    Email author
  • Laura Vandenbosch
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Leuven School for Mass Communication Research, Faculty of Social SciencesKU LeuvenLouvainBelgium
  2. 2.Amsterdam School of Communication ResearchUniversity of AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Research Foundation Flanders (FWO-Vlaanderen)LouvainBelgium
  4. 4.MIOS (Media, ICT, and Interpersonal Relations in Organisations and Society)University of AntwerpAntwerpBelgium

Personalised recommendations