Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 46, Issue 1, pp 119–127 | Cite as

Recalled Gendered Behavior in Childhood: A Comparison of Androphilic Men, Gynephilic Men, and Androphilic Women in Japan

  • Lanna J. PettersonEmail author
  • Chelsea R. Wrightson
  • Paul L. Vasey
Special Section: The Puzzle of Sexual Orientation


The current study tested the hypothesis that men who are androphilic (sexually attracted to adult men) in a non-Western, developed country—Japan—would recall engaging in more female-typical behavior, and less male-typical behavior, in childhood, compared to men who are gynephilic (sexually attracted to adult women). Androphilic men, androphilic women, and gynephilic men (N = 302) responded to the Female-Typical Behavior Subscale and the Male-Typical Behavior Subscale of the Childhood Gender Identity Scale, which asked participants to recall their childhood behavior. Results indicated that gynephilic men scored highest on the Male-Typical Behavior Subscale and lowest on the Female-Typical Behavior Subscale. Androphilic women scored the highest on the Female-Typical Behavior Subscale and lowest on the Male-Typical Behavior Subscale. Androphilic men scored intermediately for both the Male- and Female-Typical Behavior Subscales. The results supported the hypothesis that Japanese androphilic men would recall greater gender-nonconforming childhood behavior compared to gynephilic men. These results further reinforce the conclusion that childhood gender-nonconforming behavior is a cross-culturally universal aspect of psychosexual life course development in androphilic men. We discuss why this may be the case, as well as why cross-cultural variation occurs in the magnitude with which recalled childhood gender nonconformity is reported by androphilic males.


Sexual orientation Gender nonconformity Androphilia Japan 



We thank Eiji Enomoto, Chiji Masafumi, Kiyoshige Murata, Ayumi Sawada, Yoshiko Sawada, Sachiko Shimada, Hideki Shiraume, Takashi Yanai, Ryoko Yoshikawa, and all of the individuals who agreed to participate in our study. Various stages of this research were supported by the University of Lethbridge, Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) Masters Scholarship to LJP, Chinook summer research award to CRW, and SSHRC Insight Grant to PLV. All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The University of Lethbridge Human Subject Research Committee approved this research. Participants were required to sign consent forms prior to taking part in the study. All procedures performed in this study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Canadian Tri-Council Policy Statement 2 (2014): Ethical Conduct for Research Involving Humans.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lanna J. Petterson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chelsea R. Wrightson
    • 1
  • Paul L. Vasey
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada

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