Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 47, Issue 1, pp 235–244 | Cite as

Perspectives on Sexual Identity Formation, Identity Practices, and Identity Transitions Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in India

  • Cecilia TomoriEmail author
  • Aylur K. Srikrishnan
  • Kathleen Ridgeway
  • Sunil S. Solomon
  • Shruti H. Mehta
  • Suniti Solomon
  • David D. Celentano
Original Paper


Men who have sex with men (MSM) remain at high risk for HIV infection. Culturally specific sexual identities, encompassing sexual roles, behavior, and appearance, may shape MSM’s experiences of stigmatization and discrimination, and affect their vulnerability to HIV. This multi-site qualitative study (n = 363) encompassing 31 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 121 in-depth interviews (IDIs) across 15 sites in India investigated sexual identity formation, identity practices, and transitions and their implications for HIV prevention. IDIs and FGDs were transcribed, translated, and underwent thematic analysis. Our findings document heterogeneous sexual identity formation, with MSM who have more gender nonconforming behaviors or appearance reporting greater family- and community-level disapproval, harassment, violence, and exclusion. Concealing feminine aspects of sexual identities was important in daily life, especially for married MSM. Some participants negotiated their identity practices in accordance with socioeconomic and cultural pressures, including taking on identity characteristics to suit consumer demand in sex work and on extended periods of joining communities of hijras (sometimes called TG or transgender women). Participants also reported that some MSM transition toward more feminine and hijra or transgender women identities, motivated by intersecting desires for feminine gender expression and by social exclusion and economic marginalization. Future studies should collect information on gender nonconformity stigma, and any changes in sexual identity practices or plans for transitions to other identities over time, in relation to HIV risk behaviors and outcomes.


Men who have sex with men Sexual identities Stigma Gender nonconformity HIV prevention India 



This research has been supported by grants from the National Institutes of Mental Health, R01 89266 and R21 101059, and the Johns Hopkins Center for AIDS Research (1P30AI094189). We thank the National AIDS Control Organization, India, all of our partner nongovernmental organizations throughout India, and the countless participants, without whom this research would not have been possible.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

No conflicts of interest are declared.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cecilia Tomori
    • 1
    Email author
  • Aylur K. Srikrishnan
    • 2
  • Kathleen Ridgeway
    • 3
  • Sunil S. Solomon
    • 1
    • 4
  • Shruti H. Mehta
    • 1
  • Suniti Solomon
    • 2
  • David D. Celentano
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EpidemiologyJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  2. 2.YR Gaitonde Centre for AIDS Research and EducationChennaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of International HealthJohns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthBaltimoreUSA
  4. 4.Department of MedicineJohns Hopkins School of MedicineBaltimoreUSA

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