Advertisement

Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 821–828 | Cite as

Nudity as a Disinhibiting Cue in a Date Rape Analogue

  • Annabree Fairweather
  • Drew A. Kingston
  • Martin L. Lalumière
Original Paper

Abstract

Situational factors likely play a role in date rape. The sexual inhibition hypothesis suggests that men are typically sexually inhibited by violence and non-consent, but that inhibition can also be disrupted. We attempted to determine if female nudity reduces inhibition of sexual arousal to non-consensual cues in sexually non-aggressive men. In two studies, heterosexual men (aged 18–25) were presented with six 2-min audiotaped narratives depicting consensual sexual interactions, non-consensual sexual interactions (rape), and non-sexual interactions (neutral) involving a man and a woman. In the first study, 20 participants saw pictures depicting nude or clothed women while listening to the stories. In the second study, 20 other participants saw videos depicting nude or clothed women exercising, also while listening to the stories. Genital responses and subjective sexual arousal were measured. Results suggested that nudity may have a disinhibitory effect on sexual arousal to non-consensual cues, but only when presented in the form of moving images.

Keywords

Sexual aggression Date rape Sexual arousal Plethysmography Disinhibition Nudity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to acknowledge the financial support of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada, and the helpful suggestions provided by Michael Seto.

References

  1. Abel, G. G., Barlow, D. H., Blanchard, E. B., & Guild, D. (1977). The components of rapists’ sexual arousal. Archives of General Psychiatry, 34, 895–903.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrams, D. B., & Wilson, G. T. (1983). Alcohol, sexual arousal, and self-control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45, 188–198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barbaree, H. E., Marshall, W. L., & Lanthier, R. D. (1979). Deviant sexual arousal in rapists. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 17, 215–222.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bernat, J. A., Calhoun, K. S., & Adams, H. E. (1999). Sexually aggressive and nonaggressive men’s sexual arousal and judgments in response to acquaintance rape and consensual analogues. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 662–673.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bernat, J. A., Calhoun, K. S., & Stolp, S. (1998). Sexually aggressive men’s responses to a date rape analogue: Alcohol as a disinhibiting cue. Journal of Sex Research, 35, 341–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boudreaux, E., Kilpatrick, D. G., Resnick, H. S., Best, C. L., & Saunders, B. E. (1998). Criminal victimization, posttraumatic stress disorder, and comorbid psychopathology among a community sample of women. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 11, 665–678.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dean, K. E., & Malamuth, N. M. (1997). Characteristics of men who aggress sexually and of men who imagine aggressing: Risk and moderating variables. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 449–455.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Felson, R. B., & Cundiff, P. R. (2014). Sexual assault as a crime against young people. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 43, 273–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Friedler, G. (2008). Naked Las Vegas. New York: W. W. Norton & Co.Google Scholar
  10. Gorfein, D. S., & MacLeod, C. M. (2007). Inhibition in cognition. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harris, G. T., Lalumière, M. L., Seto, M. C., Rice, M. E., & Chaplin, T. C. (2012). Explaining the erectile responses of rapists to rape stories: The contributions of sexual activity, non-consent, and violence with injury. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41, 221–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Heise, L., Moore, K., & Toubia, N. (1995). Sexual coercion and reproductive health: A focus on research. Takoma Park, MD: Population Council Inc.Google Scholar
  13. Julien, E., & Over, R. (1988). Male sexual arousal across five modes of erotic stimulation. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 17, 131–143.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Kanin, E. J. (1957). Male aggression in dating–courtship relations. American Journal of Sociology, 63, 197–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kanin, E. J. (1984). Date rape: Unofficial criminals and victims. Victimology, 9, 95–108.Google Scholar
  16. Kingston, D. A., Fedoroff, P., Firestone, P., Curry, S., & Bradford, J. M. (2008). Pornography use and sexual aggression: The impact of frequency and type of pornography use on recidivism among sexual offenders. Aggressive Behavior, 34, 341–351.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Kingston, D. A., Malamuth, N. M., Fedoroff, J. P., & Marshall, W. L. (2009). The importance of individual differences in pornography use: Theoretical perspectives and implications for treating sexual offenders. Journal of Sex Research, 46, 216–232.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Koss, M. P. (1985). The hidden rape victim: Personality, attitudinal and situational characteristics. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 9, 193–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Koss, M. P. (1988). Hidden rape: Sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of students in higher education. In A. W. Burgess (Ed.), Rape and sexual assault (Vol. 2, pp. 3–25). New York: Garland.Google Scholar
  20. Koss, M. P., & Dinero, T. E. (1988). Predictors of sexual aggression among a national sample of male college students. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 528, 133–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Koss, M. P., Gidycz, C. A., & Wisniewski, N. (1987). The scope of rape: Incidence and prevalence of sexual aggression and victimization in a national sample of higher education students. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 55, 162–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Lalumière, M. L., Fairweather, A. F., Harris, G. T., Suschinsky, K. D., & Seto, M. C. (2015). Genital responses to rape vignettes among young men: The influence of mood and directed attention. Manuscript submitted for publication.Google Scholar
  23. Lalumière, M. L., Harris, G. T., Quinsey, V. L., & Rice, M. E. (2005). The causes of rape: Understanding individual differences in male propensity for sexual aggression. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Lalumière, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. (1993). The sensitivity of phallometric measures with rapists. Annals of Sex Research, 6, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lalumière, M. L., & Quinsey, V. L. (1994). The discriminability of rapists from non-sex offenders using phallometric measures. Criminal Justice and Behavior, 21, 150–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lalumière, M. L., Quinsey, V. L., Harris, G. T., Rice, M. E., & Trautrimas, C. (2003). Are rapists differentially aroused by coercive sex in phallometric assessments? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 989, 211–224.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Laumann, E. O., Gagnon, J. H., Michael, R. T., & Michaels, S. (1994). The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  28. Lohr, B. A., Adams, H. E., & Davis, J. M. (1997). Sexual arousal to erotic and aggressive stimuli in sexually coercive and noncoercive men. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 106, 230–242.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Malamuth, N. M., & Check, J. (1981). The effects of mass media exposure on acceptance of violence against women: A field experiment. Journal of Research in Personality, 15, 436–446.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Malamuth, N. M., Check, J. V. P., & Brière, J. (1986). Sexual arousal in response to aggression: Ideological, aggressive and sexual correlates. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50, 330–340.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Malamuth, N. M., Haber, S., & Feshbach, S. (1980). Testing hypotheses regarding rape: Exposure to sexual violence, sexual differences, and the “normality” of rapists. Journal of Research and Personality, 14, 127–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Miller, B., & Marshall, J. C. (1987). Coercive sex on the university campus. Journal of College Student Personnel, 28, 38–47.Google Scholar
  33. Muehlenhard, C. L., & Linton, M. A. (1987). Date rape and sexual aggression in dating situations: Incidence and risk factors. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 34, 186–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. O'Brien, F., & Cousineau, D. (2014). Representing error bars in within-subject designs in typical software packages. Tutorials in Quantitative Methods for Psychology, 10, 56–67.Google Scholar
  35. Reifler, C. B., Howard, J., Lipton, M. A., Liptzin, M. B., & Widmann, D. E. (1971). Pornography: An experimental study of effects. American Journal of Psychiatry, 128, 575–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Rice, M. E., Chaplin, T. C., Harris, G. T., & Coutts, J. (1994). Empathy for the victim and sexual arousal among rapists and nonrapists. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9, 435–449.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Sadler, A. G., Booth, B. M., Cook, B. L., & Doebbeling, B. N. (2003). Factors associated with women’s risk of rape in the military environment. American Journal of Industrial Medicine, 43, 262–273.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Sawatsky, M. L., Dawson, S. J., & Lalumière, M. L. (2015). Consensual victim–perpetrator intercourse following nonconsensual sex: The impact of prior relationship. Journal of Sex Research. doi: 10.1080/00224499.2014.996279.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Schaefer, H. H., & Colgan, A. H. (1977). The effect of pornography on penile tumescence as a function of reinforcement and novelty. Behavior Therapy, 8, 938–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Seto, M. C., Lalumière, M. L., Harris, G. T., & Chivers, M. L. (2012). The sexual responses of sexual sadists. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 121, 739–753.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Sigusch, V., Schmidt, G., Reinfeld, A., & Wiedemann-Sutor, I. (1970). Psychosexual stimulation: Sex differences. Journal of Sex Research, 6, 6–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Steele, D. G., & Walker, C. E. (1974). Male and female differences in reaction to erotic stimuli as related to sexual adjustment. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 3, 459–470.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Yates, E., Barbaree, H. E., & Marshall, W. L. (1984). Anger and deviant sexual arousal. Behavior Therapy, 15, 287–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Yoon, J., & Knight, R. A. (2011). Sexual material perception in sexually coercive men: Disattending deficit and its covariates. Sexual Abuse: A Journal of Research and Treatment, 23, 275–291.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Annabree Fairweather
    • 1
  • Drew A. Kingston
    • 2
  • Martin L. Lalumière
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of LethbridgeLethbridgeCanada
  2. 2.Integrated Forensic ProgramRoyal Ottawa Health Care GroupBrockvilleCanada
  3. 3.School of PsychologyUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations