Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 45, Issue 4, pp 877–889 | Cite as

The Role of Facial and Body Hair Distribution in Women’s Judgments of Men’s Sexual Attractiveness

  • Barnaby J. W. DixsonEmail author
  • Markus J. Rantala
Original Paper


Facial and body hair are some of the most visually conspicuous and sexually dimorphic of all men’s secondary sexual traits. Both are androgen dependent, requiring the conversion of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone via the enzyme 5α reductase 2 for their expression. While previous studies on the attractiveness of facial and body hair are equivocal, none have accounted as to how natural variation in their distribution may influence male sexual attractiveness. In the present study, we quantified men’s facial and body hair distribution as either very light, light, medium, or heavy using natural photographs. We also tested whether women’s fertility influenced their preferences for beards and body hair by comparing preferences among heterosexual women grouped according their fertility (high fertility, low fertility, and contraceptive use). Results showed that men with more evenly and continuously distributed facial hair from the lower jaw connecting to the mustache and covering the cheeks were judged as more sexually attractive than individuals with more patchy facial hair. Men with body hair were less attractive than when clean shaven, with the exception of images depicting some hair around the areolae, pectoral region, and the sternum that were significantly more attractive than clean-shaven bodies. However, there was no effect of fertility on women’s preferences for men’s beard or body hair distribution. These results suggest that the distribution of facial and body hair influences male attractiveness to women, possibly as an indication of masculine development and the synthesis of testosterone into dihydrotestosterone via 5α reductase.


Facial hair Body hair Beards Attractiveness Menstrual cycle 



We would like to thank the Editor and three anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments, which helped to improve the article. We also thank Rob Brooks for additional comments and suggestions on drafts and subsequent revisions. We are also grateful to all the men who provided the beard and body hair stimuli and all the participants who volunteered to complete surveys.


  1. Anonymous. (1970). Effects of sexual activity on beard growth in man. Nature, 226, 869–870.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Apicella, C. L., Feinberg, D. R., & Marlowe, F. W. (2007). Voice pitch predicts reproductive success in male hunter-gatherers. Biology Letters, 3, 682–684.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber, N. (2001). Mustache fashion covaries with a good marriage market for women. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25, 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Basow, S. A., & O’Neil, K. (2014). Men’s body depilation: An exploratory study of United States college students’ preferences, attitudes, and practices. Body Image, 11, 409–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Boothroyd, L. G., Jones, B. C., Burt, D. M., DeBruine, L. M., & Perrett, D. I. (2008). Facial correlates of sociosexuality. Evolution and Human Behavior, 29, 211–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boroughs, M., Cafri, G., & Thompson, J. K. (2005). Male body depilation: Prevalence and associated features of body hair removal. Sex Roles, 52, 637–644.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Boroughs, M. S., & Thompson, J. K. (2014). Correlates of body depilation an exploratory study into the health implications of body hair reduction and removal among college-aged men. American Journal of Men’s Health, 8, 217–225.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brodin, T., Bergh, T., Berglund, L., Hadziosmanovic, N., & Holte, J. (2008). Menstrual cycle length is an age-independent marker of female fertility: Results from 6271 treatment cycles of in vitro fertilization. Fertility and Sterility, 90, 1656–1661.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cárdenas, R. A., & Harris, L. J. (2007). Do women’s preferences for symmetry change across the menstrual cycle? Evolution and Human Behavior, 28, 96–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chabbert-Buffet, N. C., Djakoure, C., Maitre, S. C., & Bouchard, P. (1998). Regulation of the human menstrual cycle. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 19, 151–186.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chiazze, L., Brayer, F. T., Macisco, J. J., Parker, M. P., & Duffy, B. J. (1968). The length and variability of the human menstrual cycle. Journal of American Medical Association, 203, 377–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. DeBruine, L. M., Jones, B. C., Frederick, D. A., Haselton, M. G., Penton-Voak, I. S., & Perrett, D. I. (2010). Evidence for menstrual cycle shifts in women’s preferences for masculinity: A response to Harris (in press) menstrual cycle and facial preferences reconsidered. Evolutionary Psychology, 8, 768–775.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dixson, A. F., Dixson, B. J., & Anderson, M. J. (2005). Sexual selection and the evolution of visually conspicuous sexually dimorphic traits in male monkeys, apes, and human beings. Annual Review of Sex Research, 16, 1–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Dixson, A. F., Halliwell, G., East, R., Wignarajah, P., & Anderson, M. J. (2003). Masculine somatotype and hirsuteness as determinants of sexual attractiveness to women. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 29–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dixson, B. J., & Brooks, R. C. (2013). The role of facial hair in women’s perceptions of men’s attractiveness, health, masculinity and parenting abilities. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34, 236–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Dixson, B. J., Dixson, A. F., Bishop, P., & Parish, A. (2010). Human physique and sexual attractiveness in men and women: A New Zealand–U.S. comparative study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 39, 798–806.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Dixson, B. J., Dixson, A. F., Li, B., & Anderson, M. J. (2007). Studies of human physique and sexual attractiveness: Sexual preferences of men and women in China. American Journal of Human Biology, 19, 88–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dixson, B. J., Dixson, A. F., Morgan, B., & Anderson, M. (2007). Human physique and sexual attractiveness: Sexual preferences of men and women in Bakossiland, Cameroon. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 369–375.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Dixson, B. J., Grimshaw, G. M., Ormsby, D. K., & Dixson, A. F. (2014). Eye-tracking women’s preferences for men’s somatotypes. Evolution and Human Behavior, 35, 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dixson, B. J., Tam, J. C., & Awasthy, M. (2013). Do women’s preferences for men’s facial hair change with reproductive status? Behavioral Ecology, 24, 708–716.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Dixson, B. J., & Vasey, P. L. (2012). Beards augment perceptions of men’s age, social status, and aggressiveness, but not attractiveness. Behavioral Ecology, 23, 481–490.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dunson, D. B., Colombo, B., & Baird, D. D. (2002). Changes with age in the level and duration of fertility in the menstrual cycle. Human Reproduction, 17, 1399–1403.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ewing, J. A., & Rouse, B. A. (1978). Hirsutism, race and testosterone levels: Comparison of East Asians and Euroamericans. Human Biology, 50, 209–215.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Farthing, M. J. G., Mattei, A. M., Edwards, C. R. W., & Dawson, A. M. (1982). Relationship between plasma testosterone and dihydrotestosterone concentrations and male facial hair growth. British Journal of Dermatology, 107, 559–564.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fehring, R. J., Schneider, M., & Raviele, K. (2006). Variability in the phases of the menstrual cycle. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 35, 376–384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Feinberg, D. R. (2008). Are human faces and voices ornaments signaling common underlying cues to mate value? Evolutionary Anthropology, 17, 112–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Fleagle, J. G. (2013). Primate adaptation and evolution (3rd ed.). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Folstad, I., & Karter, A. J. (1992). Parasites, bright males, and the immunocompetence handicap. American Naturalist, 193, 603–622.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Frederick, D. A., & Haselton, M. G. (2007). Why is muscularity sexy? Tests of the fitness indicator hypothesis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33, 1167–1183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gangestad, S. W., & Eaton, M. A. (2013). Toward an integrative perspective on sexual selection and men’s masculinity. Behavioral Ecology, 24, 594–595.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gangestad, S. W., & Simpson, J. A. (2000). The evolution of human mating: Trade-offs and strategic pluralism. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 23, 573–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gangestad, S. W., & Thornhill, R. (2008). Human oestrus. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 275, 991–1000.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Geniole, S. N., & McCormick, C. M. (2015). Facing our ancestors: Judgments of aggression are consistent and related to the facial width-to-height ratio in men irrespective of beards. Evolution and Human Behavior, 36, 279–285.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gildersleeve, K., DeBruine, L., Haselton, M. G., Frederick, D. A., Penton-Voak, I. S., Jones, B. C., & Perrett, D. I. (2013). Shifts in women’s mate preferences across the ovulatory cycle: A critique of Harris (2011) and Harris (2012). Sex Roles, 69, 516–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gildersleeve, K., Haselton, M. G., & Fales, M. (2014a). Do women’s mate preferences change across the ovulatory cycle? A meta-analytic review. Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1205–1259.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gildersleeve, K., Haselton, M. G., & Fales, M. (2014b). Meta-analyses and p-curves support robust cycle shifts in women’s mate preferences: Reply to Wood and Carden (2014) and Harris, Pashler, and Mickes (2014). Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1272–1280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Goodhart, C. B. (1960). The evolutionary significance of human hair patterns and skin colouring. British Association for the Advancement of Science, 17, 53–58.Google Scholar
  38. Griggs, R. C., Kingston, W., Jozefowicz, R. J., Herr, B. E., Forbes, G., & Halliday, D. (1989). Effect of testosterone on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis. Journal of Applied Physiology, 66, 498–503.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Grueter, C. C., Isler, K., & Dixson, B. J. (2015). Are primate badges of status adaptive in large groups? Evolution and Human Behavior. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2015.03.003.Google Scholar
  40. Guthrie, R. D. (1970). Evolution of human threat display organs. In T. Dobhansky, M. K. Hecht, & W. C. Steers (Eds.), Evolutionary biology (pp. 257–302). New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.Google Scholar
  41. Gworys, B., & Domagala, Z. (2003). The typology of the human fetal lanugo on the thorax. Annals of Anatomy-Anatomischer Anzeiger, 185, 383–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hale, G. E., Zhao, X., Hughes, C. L., Burger, H. G., Robertson, D. M., & Fraser, I. S. (2007). Endocrine features of menstrual cycles in middle and late reproductive age and the menopausal transition classified according to the Staging of Reproductive Aging Workshop (STRAW) staging system. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 92, 3060–3067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hamilton, J. B. (1958). Age, sex and genetic factors in the regulation of hair growth in man: a comparison of Caucasian and Japanese populations. In W. Montagna & R. A. Ellis (Eds.), The biology of hair growth (pp. 399–433). New York: Academic Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Hamilton, J. B. (1964). Racial and genetic predisposition. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 7, 1075–1084.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hamilton, J. B., Terada, H., & Mestlert, G. E. (1958). Studies of growth throughout the life span in Japanese: II. Beard growth in relation to age, sex, heredity, and other factors. Journal of Gerontology, 13, 269–281.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hampson, E., & Young, E. A. (2007). Methodological issues in the study of hormone behavior relations in humans: Understanding and monitoring the menstrual cycle. In J. Becker, K. Berkley, N. Geary, E. Hampson, J. Herman, & E. Young (Eds.), Sex differences in the brain: From genes to behavior (pp. 63–78). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Harris, C. R. (2011). Menstrual cycle and facial preferences reconsidered. Sex Roles, 64, 669–681.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Harris, C. R. (2013). Shifts in masculinity preferences across the menstrual cycle: Still not there. Sex Roles, 69, 507–515.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Harris, C. R., Chabot, A., & Mickes, L. (2013). Shifts in methodology and theory in menstrual cycle research on attraction. Sex Roles, 69, 9–10.Google Scholar
  50. Harris, C. R., Pashler, H., & Mickes, L. (2014). Elastic analysis procedures: An incurable (but preventable) problem in the fertility effect literature. Comment on Gildersleeve, Haselton, and Fales (2014). Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1260–1264.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hill, A. K., Hunt, J., Welling, L. L., Cárdenas, R. A., Rotella, M. A., Wheatley, J. R., … Puts, D. A. (2013). Quantifying the strength and form of sexual selection on men’s traits. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34, 334–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Imperato-McGinley, J., & Zhu, Y. S. (2002). Androgens and male physiology the syndrome of 5α reductase-2 deficiency. Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology, 198, 51–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Janif, Z. J., Brooks, R. C., & Dixson, B. J. (2014). Negative frequency-dependent preferences and variation in male facial hair. Biology Letters, 10(4), 20130958. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2013.0958.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Jukic, A. M. Z., Weinberg, C. R., Wilcox, A. J., McConnaughey, D. R., Hornsby, P., & Baird, D. D. (2008). Accuracy of reporting of menstrual cycle length. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167, 25–33.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kinsey, A. C., Pomeroy, W. B., & Martin, C. E. (1948). Sexual behavior in the human male. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders.Google Scholar
  56. Knussmann, R., Christiansen, K., & Kannmacher, J. (1992). Relations between sex hormone level and characters of hair and skin in healthy young men. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 88, 59–67.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kokko, H., Brooks, R. C., Jennions, M. D., & Morley, J. (2003). The evolution of mate choice and mating biases. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B, 270, 653–664.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kruger, D. J. (2006). Male facial masculinity influences attributions of personality and reproductive strategy. Personal Relationships, 13, 451–463.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lassek, W. D., & Gaulin, S. J. C. (2009). Costs and benefits of fat-free muscle mass in men: Relationship to mating success, dietary requirements, and native immunity. Evolution and Human Behavior, 30, 322–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Lipson, S. F., & Ellison, P. T. (1996). Comparison of salivary steroid profiles in naturally occurring conception and non-conception cycles. Human Reproduction, 11, 2090–2096.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., & Burriss, R. P. (2007). Preferences for masculinity in male bodies change across the menstrual cycle. Hormones and Behavior, 51, 633–639.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., & DeBruine, L. M. (2008). Preferences for variation in masculinity in real male faces change across the menstrual cycle: Women prefer more masculine faces when they are more fertile. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 478–482.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Little, A. C., Jones, B. C., Penton-Voak, I. S., Burt, D. M., & Perrett, D. I. (2002). Partnership status and the temporal context of relationships influence human female preferences for sexual dimorphism in male face shape. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, 269, 1095–1100.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Lookingbill, D. P., Demers, L. M., Wang, C., Leung, A., Rittmaster, R. S., & Santen, R. J. (1991). Clinical and biochemical parameters of androgen action in normal healthy caucasian versus Chinese subjects. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 72, 1242–1248.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mihm, M., Gangooly, S., & Muttukrishna, S. (2011). The normal menstrual cycle in women. Animal Reproductive Science, 124, 229–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Muscarella, F., & Cunningham, M. R. (1996). The evolutionary significance and social perception of male pattern baldness and facial hair. Ethology and Sociobiology, 17, 99–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Neave, N., & Shields, K. (2008). The effects of facial hair manipulation on female perceptions of attractiveness, masculinity, and dominance in male faces. Personality and Individual Differences, 45, 373–377.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Penton-Voak, I. S., & Perrett, D. I. (2000). Female preference for male faces changes cyclically: Further evidence. Evolution and Human Behavior, 21, 39–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Penton-Voak, I. S., Perrett, D. I., Castles, D. L., Kobayashi, T., Burt, D. M., Murray, L. K., & Minamisawa, R. (1999). Menstrual cycle alters face preference. Nature, 399, 741–742.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Perrett, D. I., Lee, K. J., Penton-Voak, I., Rowland, D., Yoshikawa, S., Burt, D. M., … Akamatsu, S. (1998). Effects of sexual dimorphism on facial attractiveness. Nature, 394, 884–887.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Peters, M., Simmons, L. W., & Rhodes, G. (2009). Preferences across the menstrual cycle for masculinity and symmetry in photographs of male faces and bodies. PLoS One, 4, e4138.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Price, M. L., & Griffiths, W. A. D. (1985). Normal body hair—A review. Clinical and Experimental Dermatology, 10, 87–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Prokop, P., Rantala, M. J., & Fančovičová, J. (2012). Is plasticity in mating preferences adapted to perceived exposure to pathogens? Acta Ethology, 15, 135–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Prokop, P., Rantala, M. J., Usak, M., & Senay, I. (2013). Is a woman’s preference for chest hair in men influenced by parasite threat? Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42, 1181–1189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Puts, D. A., Bailey, D. H., Cárdenas, R. A., Burriss, R. P., Welling, L. L., Wheatley, J. R., & Dawood, K. (2013). Women’s attractiveness changes with estradiol and progesterone across the ovulatory cycle. Hormones and Behavior, 63, 13–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Randall, V. A. (1994). Role of 5α-reductase in health and disease. Baillières Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 8, 405–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Randall, V. A. (2008). Androgens and hair growth. Dermatologic Therapy, 21, 314–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Rantala, M. J. (2007). Evolution of nakedness in Homo sapiens. Journal of Zoology, 273, 1–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Rantala, M. J., Moore, F. R., Skrinda, I., Krama, T., Kivleniece, I., Kecko, S., & Krams, I. (2012). Evidence for the stress-linked immunocompetence handicap hypothesis in humans. Nature Communications, 3, 694.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rantala, M. J., Pölkki, M., & Rantala, L. M. (2010). Preference for human male body hair changes across the menstrual cycle and menopause. Behavioral Ecology, 21, 419–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Reynolds, C. F., Thase, M. E., Frank, E., Jennings, R. J., Howell, J. R., Schwentker, F. N., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). Normal beard growth and testicular volume in depressed men [Letter to the Editor]. Archives of General Psychiatry, 46, 288.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rhodes, G. (2006). The evolutionary psychology of facial beauty. Annual Review of Psychology, 57, 199–226.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rhodes, G., Morley, G., & Simmons, L. W. (2013). Women can judge sexual unfaithfulness from unfamiliar men’s faces. Biology Letters. doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2012.0908.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  84. Rhodes, G., Simmons, L. W., & Peters, M. (2005). Attractiveness and sexual behavior: Does attractiveness enhance mating success? Evolution and Human Behavior, 26, 186–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Roberts, S. C., Cobey, K. D., Klapilová, K., & Havlíček, J. (2013). An evolutionary approach offers a fresh perspective on the relationship between oral contraception and sexual desire. Archives Sexual Behavior, 42, 1369–1375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Robertson, J. R. (Ed.). (2002). Forensic examination of hair. London: Taylor & Francis.Google Scholar
  87. Robinson, D. E. (1976). Fashions in shaving and trimming of the beard: The men of the Illustrated London News, 1842–1972. American Journal of Sociology, 81, 1133–1141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Roney, J. R., Simmons, Z. L., & Gray, P. B. (2011). Changes in estradiol predict within-women shifts in attraction to facial cues of men’s testosterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 742–749.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sandel, A. A. (2013). Hair density and body mass in mammals and the evolution of human hairlessness. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 152, 145–150.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Schooling, C. M., Jiang, C., Zhang, W., Lam, T. H., Cheng, K. K., & Leung, G. M. (2011). Size does matter: Adolescent build and male reproductive success in the Guangzhou Biobank Cohort Study. Annals of Epidemiology, 21, 56–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Scott, I. M., Clark, A. P., Boothroyd, L. G., & Penton-Voak, I. S. (2013). Do men’s faces really signal heritable immunocompetence? Behavioral Ecology, 24, 579–589.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Setty, L. R. (1961). The distribution of chest hair in Caucasoid males. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 19, 285–287.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Setty, L. R. (1971). Hair patterns of the face of white and negro males. Journal of the National Medical Association, 63, 128–131.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  94. Small, C. M., Manatunga, A. K., & Marcus, M. (2007). Validity of self-reported menstrual cycle length. Annals of Epidemiology, 17, 163–170.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Szabo, G. (1967). The regional anatomy of the human integument with special reference to the distribution of hair follicles, sweat glands and melanocytes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society London B, 252, 447–489.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Terry, G., & Braun, V. (2013). To let hair be, or to not let hair be? Gender and body hair removal practices in Aotearoa/New Zealand. Body Image, 10, 599–606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Toerien, M., Wilkinson, S., & Choi, P. Y. (2005). Body hair removal: The ‘mundane’ production of normative femininity. Sex Roles, 52, 399–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Torrance, J. S., Wincenciak, J., Hahn, A. C., DeBruine, L. M., & Jones, B. C. (2014). The relative contributions of facial shape and surface information to perceptions of attractiveness and dominance. PLoS One, 9(10), e104415.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Verdonck, A., Gaethofs, M., Carels, C., & de Zegher, F. (1999). Effect of low-dose testosterone treatment on craniofacial growth in boys with delayed puberty. The European Journal of Orthodontics, 21, 137–143.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Vitzthum, V. J. (2008). Evolutionary models of women’s reproductive functioning. Annual Review of Anthropology, 37, 53–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wilcox, A. J., Dunson, D., & Baird, D. D. (2000). The timing of the “fertile window” in the menstrual cycle: Day specific estimates from a prospective study. British Medical Journal, 321, 1259–1262.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wilcox, A. J., Dunson, D. B., Weinberg, C. R., Trussell, J., & Baird, D. D. (2001). Likelihood of conception with a single act of intercourse: Providing benchmark rates for assessment of post-coital contraceptives. Contraception, 63, 211–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wilcox, A. J., Weinberg, C. R., & Baird, D. D. (1995). Timing of sexual intercourse in relation to ovulation-effects on the probability of conception, survival of the pregnancy, and sex of the baby. New England Journal of Medicine, 333, 1517–1521.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Winkler, E. M., & Christiansen, K. (1993). Sex hormone levels and body hair growth in !Kung San and Kavango men from Namibia. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 92, 155–164.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Wong, B., & Candolin, U. (2005). How is female mate choice affected by male competition? Biological Reviews, 80, 559–571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wood, W., & Carden, L. (2014). Elusiveness of menstrual cycle effects on mate preferences: Comment on Gildersleeve, Haselton, and Fales (2014). Psychological Bulletin, 140, 1265–1271.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Wood, W., Kressel, L., Joshi, P. D., & Louie, B. (2014). Meta-analysis of menstrual cycle effects on women’s mate preferences. Emotion Review, 6, 229–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyThe University of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Evolution and Ecology Research Centre, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental SciencesUniversity of New South WalesSydneyAustralia
  3. 3.Turku Brain and Mind Center, Section of Department of BiologyUniversity of TurkuTurkuFinland

Personalised recommendations