Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 44, Issue 5, pp 1321–1329 | Cite as

Long-Term Follow-Up of Adults with Gender Identity Disorder

  • Ulrike RuppinEmail author
  • Friedemann Pfäfflin
Original Paper


The aim of this study was to re-examine individuals with gender identity disorder after as long a period of time as possible. To meet the inclusion criterion, the legal recognition of participants’ gender change via a legal name change had to date back at least 10 years. The sample comprised 71 participants (35 MtF and 36 FtM). The follow-up period was 10–24 years with a mean of 13.8 years (SD = 2.78). Instruments included a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods: Clinical interviews were conducted with the participants, and they completed a follow-up questionnaire as well as several standardized questionnaires they had already filled in when they first made contact with the clinic. Positive and desired changes were determined by all of the instruments: Participants reported high degrees of well-being and a good social integration. Very few participants were unemployed, most of them had a steady relationship, and they were also satisfied with their relationships with family and friends. Their overall evaluation of the treatment process for sex reassignment and its effectiveness in reducing gender dysphoria was positive. Regarding the results of the standardized questionnaires, participants showed significantly fewer psychological problems and interpersonal difficulties as well as a strongly increased life satisfaction at follow-up than at the time of the initial consultation. Despite these positive results, the treatment of transsexualism is far from being perfect.


Gender dysphoria Gender identity disorder Transgenderism Transsexualism Follow-up 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Clinic for Psychosomatic Medicine and PsychotherapyUniversity of UlmUlmGermany

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