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The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Exhibitionism, Voyeurism, and Frotteurism

Abstract

I reviewed the empirical literature for 1980–2008 on exhibitionism, voyeurism, and frotteurism for the American Psychiatric Association’s Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders Work Group in preparation for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). Very limited empirical support was found for major changes of the current DSM-IV-TR criteria sets for these paraphilias. Some of the criticism of current criteria and the balancing of false negatives and false positive diagnoses are examined. The report concludes with suggestions for possible diagnostic criteria changes for the DSM-V.

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Acknowledgments

Niklas Långström is funded by the Swedish Research Council-Medicine. The author is a member of the DSM-V Workgroup on Sexual and Gender Identity Disorders (Chair, Kenneth J. Zucker, Ph.D.). I wish to acknowledge the valuable input received from the other members of the Paraphilias subworkgroup (Ray Blanchard, Marty Kafka, and Richard Krueger) and Kenneth J. Zucker. Reprinted with permission from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders V Workgroup Reports (Copyright 2009), American Psychiatric Association.

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Långström, N. The DSM Diagnostic Criteria for Exhibitionism, Voyeurism, and Frotteurism. Arch Sex Behav 39, 317–324 (2010). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-009-9577-4

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Keywords

  • DSM-V
  • Paraphilias
  • Exhibitionism
  • Voyeurism
  • Frotteurism