Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp 773–782 | Cite as

Familism and Sexual Regulation Among Bisexual Latino Men

Original Paper: Black and Latino Male Bisexualities Special Section

Abstract

As the AIDS epidemic continues to disproportionately affect the Latino and African American communities in the United States, little is still known about bisexual behavior and sexual risk of Latino and African American men. This article explores the construct of familism (i.e., the cultural value that weighs on the interdependence among nuclear and extended family members for support, emotional connectedness, familial honor, loyalty, and solidarity) as an analytical point of departure from which to conceptualize sexual risk for bisexual Latino men. Data collection methods involved detailed sexual histories of 18 bisexually-active Latino men in the metropolitan New York City area. The results of this study indicate that familism, as defined by familial support, emotional interconnectedness, and familial honor, shapes the sexual decisions of bisexual teenage and adult Latino men.

Keywords

Familism Bisexuality Homosexuality Latino Hispanic Masculinity 

References

  1. Asencio, M. (2002). Sex and sexuality among New York’s Puerto Rican youth. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  2. Bardis, P. (1959a). A familism scale. Marriage & Family Living, 21, 340–341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bardis, P. (1959b). Influence on a functional marriage course on attitudes towards familism. Journal of Educational Sociology, 32, 232–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barth, F. (1969). Ethnic groups and boundaries: The social organization of culture difference. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  5. Bean, F., Curtis, R., & Marcum, J. (1977). Familism and marital satisfaction among Mexican Americans: The effects of family size, wife’s labor force participation, and conjugal power. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 39, 759–767.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bell, W. (1956). Familism and suburbanization: One test of the social choice hypothesis. Rural Sociology, 21, 276–283.Google Scholar
  7. Benson, P. (1955). Familism and marital success. Social Forces, 33, 277–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bourdieu, P. (1984). Distinction: A social critique of the judgment of taste. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Bourgois, P. (1996). In search of masculinity: Violence, respect and sexuality among Puerto Rican crack dealers in East Harlem. British Journal of Criminology, 36, 412–427.Google Scholar
  10. Bryant, C. M. (1997). Subcultural variations in the social network support of Latinos, African-Americans, and Anglos: What is the association between the development of heterosexual relationships and the support of friends and family members? Dissertation Abstracts International, 58(1-A), 0301.Google Scholar
  11. Bush, K., Supple, A., & Lash, S. (2004). Mexican adolescents’ perceptions of parental behaviors and authority as predictors of their self-esteem and sense of familism. Marriage & Family Review, 36, 35–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Connell, R. W. (2000). The men and the boys. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  13. Coohey, C. (2001). The relationship between familism and child maltreatment in Latino and Anglo families. Child Maltreatment, 6, 130–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Cortes, D. (1995). Variations in familism in two generations of Puerto Ricans. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 17, 249–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Crawford, J., Kippax, S., & Prestage, G. (1996). Not gay, not bisexual, but polymorphously sexually active: Male bisexuality and AIDS in Australia. In P. Aggleton (Ed.), Bisexualities and AIDS: International perspectives (pp. 44–60). Bristol, PA: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  16. De Moya, A. (2003). Power games and totalitarian masculinity in the Dominican Republic. In R. Ramírez, V. García-Toro, & I. Cunningham (Eds.), Caribbean masculinities: Working papers (pp. 105–146). San Juan, PR: The University of Puerto Rico.Google Scholar
  17. Department of Health and Human Services. (2002). US DHHS 2002 Poverty Guidelines. Released on February 14, 2002 (Volume 67, Number 31): 6931–6933. [Online US Federal Document Identification Number:fr14fe02–79]. http://aspe.hhs.gov/poverty/02fedreg.htm. Accessed 20 May 2003.
  18. Diaz, R. (1998). Latino gay men and HIV: Culture, sexuality, and risk behavior. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  19. Diaz, R., Ayala, G., & Bein, E. (2004). Sexual risk as an outcome of social oppression: Data from a probability sample of Latino gay men in three U.S. cities. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 10, 255–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dowsett, G. (1996). Practicing desire: Homosexual sex in the era of AIDS. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Dugan, T., & Meyer-Bahlburg, H. (2003). A training program for sex research interviewers. In D. Di Mauro, G. Herdt, & R. Parker (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality research training initiatives (pp. 81–92). New York: Social Science Research Council.Google Scholar
  22. Freeman, C. (2005). Neo-liberalism, respectability, and the romance of flexibility in Barbados. Accessed 15 Jan 2006 [Online Working Paper] from http://www.marial.emory.edu/pdfs/Carla%20Freeman%20wp%2040.pdf.
  23. Fuller, N. (2001). The social constitution of gender identity among Peruvian men. Men and Masculinities, 3, 316–331.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Gaines, S., Marelich, W., Bledsoe, K., & Steers, W. (1997). Links between race/ethnicity and cultural values as mediated by racial/ethnic identity and moderated by gender. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 72, 1460–1476.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Gelder, K., & Thornton, S. (1997). The subcultures reader. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  26. Gil, A., Wagner, E., & Vega, W. (2000). Acculturation, familism and alcohol use among Latino adolescent males: Longitudinal relations. Journal of Community Psychology, 28, 443–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Guilamo-Ramos, V., Jaccard, J., Dittus, P., & Bouris, A. (2006). Parental expertise, trustworthiness, and accessibility: Parent-adolescent communication and adolescent risk behavior. Journal of Marriage and Family, 68, 1229–1246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hamid, A. (1992). The developmental cycle of a drug epidemic: The cocaine smoking epidemic of 1981–1991. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 24, 337–348.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. John, R., Resendiz, R., & De Vargas, L. (1997). Beyond familism?: Familism as explicit motive for eldercare among Mexican American caregivers. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology, 12, 145–162.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Luna, I., de Ardon, E., Lim, Y., Cromwell, S., Phillips, L., & Russell, C. (1996). The relevance of familism in cross-cultural studies of family caregiving. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 18, 267–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Magana, S. (1999). Puerto Rican families caring for an adult with mental retardation: Role of familism. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 104, 466–482.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Mays, V., Cochran, S., & Zamudio, A. (2004). HIV prevention research: Are we meeting the needs of African American men who have sex with men? Journal of Black Psychology, 30, 78–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Muñoz-Laboy, M. (2004). Beyond MSM: Sexual desire among bisexually-active Latino men in New York City. Sexualities, 7, 55–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Muñoz-Laboy, M., & Dodge, B. (2005). Bi-sexual practices: Patterns, meanings, and implications for HIV/STI prevention among bisexually-active Latino men and their partners. Journal of Bisexuality, 5, 81–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Muñoz-Laboy, M., & Dodge, B. (2007). Bisexual Latino men and HIV and sexually transmitted infections risk: An exploratory analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 97, 1102–1106.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Nagel, J. (1994). Constructing identity: Creating and recreating ethnic identity and culture. Social Problems, 41, 152–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Olavarría, J. (2001). De la identidad a la política: Masculinidades y políticas públicas [From identity to politics: Masculinities and public policy]. In J. Olavarría & R. Parrini (Eds.), Masculinidades: Identidad, sexualidad y familia [Masculinities: Identity, sexuality and family] (pp. 11–28). Santiago, Chile: FLACSO.Google Scholar
  38. Olavarría, J., & Valdés, T. (1998). Masculinidades y equidad de género en América Latina [Masculinities and gender equity in Latin America]. Santiago, Chile: FLACSO-UNFPA.Google Scholar
  39. Plummer, K. (1983). Documents of life: An introduction to the problems and literature of a humanistic method. London: George Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  40. Ramirez, J., William D., Quist, R., Burgoon, M., Alvaro, E., & Grandpre, J. (2004). Acculturation, familism, parental monitoring, and knowledge as predictors of marijuana and inhalant use in adolescents. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 3–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Reinarman, C., & Levine, H. (1995). The crack attack: America’s latest drug scare, 1986–1992. In J. Best (Ed.), Images of issues: Typifying contemporary social problems (pp. 147–186). Hawthorne, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  42. Renold, E. (2001). Learning the “hard” way: Boys, hegemonic masculinity and the negotiation of learner identities in the primary school. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 22, 369–385.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Rodriguez, J. (2002). Family environment and achievement among three generations of Mexican American high school students. Applied Developmental Science, 6, 88–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Steidel, A., & Contreras, J. (2003). A new familism scale for use with Latino populations. Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, 25, 312–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Unger, J., Ritt-Olson, A., Teran, L., Huang, T., Hoffman, B., & Palmer, P. (2002). Cultural values and substance use in a multiethnic sample of California adolescents. Addiction Research & Theory, 10, 257–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Valenzuela, A., & Dornbusch, S. (1994). Familism and social capital in the academic achievement of Mexican origin and Anglo adolescents. Social Science Quarterly, 75, 18–36.Google Scholar
  47. Vega, W. (1995). The study of Latino families: A point of departure. In E. Zambrana (Ed.), Understanding Latino families: Scholarship, policy, and practice. Understanding families (pp. 3–17). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  48. Ventura, S., Mathews, T. J., & Hamilton, B. (2001, September 25). Births to teenagers in the United States, 1940–2000. National Vital Statistics Report, 49, 10.Google Scholar
  49. Villarosa, L. (2004, April 5). AIDS fears grow for Black women. New York Times (Late Edition—Final), 1A. [Electronic version].Google Scholar
  50. Weeks, J. (1986). Sexuality. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  51. Wilkening, E. (1954). Change in farm technology as related to familism, family decision making, and family integration. American Sociological Review, 19, 29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wilson, P. J. (1969). Reputation and respectability: A suggestion for Caribbean ethnology. Man, 4, 70–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Youn, G., Knight, B., Jeong, H. S., & Benton, D. (1999). Differences in familism values and caregiving outcomes among Korean, Korean American, and white American dementia caregivers. Psychology & Aging, 14, 355–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociomedical SciencesMailman School of Public Health, Columbia UniversityNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations