Archives of Sexual Behavior

, Volume 38, Issue 5, pp 726–736 | Cite as

Recalled Sex-typed Behavior in Childhood and Sports’ Preferences in Adulthood of Heterosexual, Bisexual, and Homosexual Men from Brazil, Turkey, and Thailand

  • Fernando Luiz CardosoEmail author
Original Paper


This research used interview and questionnaire data from homosexual (n = 177), bisexual (n = 157), and heterosexual (n = 544) men between 20 and 30 years of age among lower class men and university students in three countries: Brazil, Thailand, and Turkey. The main goal of the study was to examine the recalled childhood sex-typed behavior and adult sports preferences that distinguish homosexuals from bisexuals and heterosexuals. In all three cultures and both social groups, homosexual men were almost always more likely as children to have wanted to be a girl, to cross-dress, to play with girls, to do girls’ tasks, and to practice fewer sports. They were also less likely to bully others or to engage in physical fights. As children, homosexual men were more likely to prefer swimming and playing volleyball rather than soccer and, as adults, they preferred watching gymnastics and swimming over soccer. The bisexuals scored intermediate mostly in “desire to be a girl” and “cross-dressing,” although they were much closer to the heterosexuals. These results, coupled with previous cross-cultural research, suggest that cross-gender behavior in childhood may characterize most male homosexuals regardless of their cultural milieu.


Sexual orientation Sports orientation Gender role Turkey Brazil Thailand 



I would like to thank the participants of the survey, who have to remain anonymous, but without whom this study would not have been possible. Dr. Dennis Werner kindly gave valuable advice and support during the study. The author expresses his gratitude to CAPES (Brazil) and to UDESC (Brazil) for funding his Ph.D. in the U.S., where the study was prepared. I would also like to thank the anonymous reviewers and the Editor for their diligent feedback during the revision process.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratório de Gênero, Sexualidade e CorporeidadeSanta Catarina State University - UDESCFlorianopolisBrazil

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