Skip to main content

The Use of Cyberpornography by Young Men in Hong Kong: Some Psychosocial Correlates

Abstract

This study examined the prevalence of online pornography viewing and its psychosocial correlates among a sample of young Chinese men in Hong Kong. A total of 229 participants completed a questionnaire designed to measure their online pornography viewing, peer and parental influences, openness to experience, and various types of sex-related attitudes. Results showed that online pornography viewing was common and was strongly associated with peer influence and susceptibility to peer pressure. Moreover, participants who reported to have more online pornography viewing were found to score higher on measures of premarital sexual permissiveness and proclivities toward sexual harassment. Conceptual and applied implications of these findings are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Notes

  1. Separate correlational and regression analyses were also conducted for participants collected through the online method and those collected through traditional paper-and-pencil questionnaires; highly similar patterns of results were obtained. Readers who are interested in these results can contact the corresponding author for details.

References

  • Allen, M., D'Alessio, D., & Brezgel, K. (1995). A meta-analysis summarizing the effects of pornography: II. Aggression after exposure. Human Communication Research, 22, 258–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Allen, M., Emmers, T. M., Gebhardt, L., & Giery, M. (1995). Pornography and rape myth acceptance. Journal of Communication, 45, 5–26.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Arata, C. M., Stafford, J., & Tims, M. (2003). High school drinking and its consequences. Adolescence, 38, 567–579.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Barak, A., & Fisher, W. (1997). Effects of interactive computer erotica on men's attitudes and behavior toward women: An experimental study. Computers in Human Behavior, 13, 353–369.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Barak, A., Fisher, W. A., Belfry, S., & Lashambe, D. R. (1999). Sex, guys and cyberspace: Effects of Internet pornography and individual differences on men's attitudes towards women. Journal of Psychology and Human Sexuality, 11, 63–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berger, A., Gagnon, J., & Simon, W. (1971a). Pornography: High school and college years. Technical report of the commission on obscenity and pornography (Vol. 9, pp. 165–208). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Biber, J. K., Doverspike, D., Baznik, D., Cober, A., & Ritter, B. (2002). Sexual harassment in online communications: Effects of gender and disclosure medium. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 5, 33–42.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Brosius, H., Weaver, J., & Staab, J. F. Exploring the social and sexual “reality” of contemporary pornography. Journal of Sex Research, 30, 161–171.

  • Brown, D. (2003). Pornography and erotica. In J. Bryant & D. Roskos-Ewoldsen (Eds.), Communication and emotion: Essays in honor of Dolf Zillmann (pp. 221–253). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Bryant, J., & Brown, D. (1989) Uses of pornography. In D. Zillmann (Ed.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 25–55). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper, A. (1999). Sexuality and the Internet: Surfing into the new millennium. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 1, 181–187.

    Google Scholar 

  • Cooper, A., Mansson, S., Daneback, K., Tikkanen, R., & Ross, M. (2003). Predicting the future of Internet sex: online sexual activities in Sweden. Sexual and Relationship Therapy, 18, 277–291.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Cooper, A., Scherer, C., Boies, S., & Gordon, B. (1999). Sexuality on the Internet: From sexual exploration to pathological expression. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 30, 154–164.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Costa, P. T., & McCrae, R. R. (1992). Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.

    Google Scholar 

  • Dielman, T. E., Campanellio, P. C., Shope, J. T., & Butchart, A. T. (1987). Susceptibility to peer pressure, self-esteem, and health locus of control as correlates of adolescent substance use. Health Education Quarterly, 14, 207–221.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Elias, J. (1971). Exposure of adolescents to erotic materials. Technical report of the commission on obscenity and pornography (Vol. 9, pp. 373--411). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

    Google Scholar 

  • Falat, M. (1998). Possible interconnections of the Big Five with creativity research. Studia Psychologica, 40, 331–334.

    Google Scholar 

  • Fisher, W. A., & Barak, A. (2001). Internet pornography: A social psychological perspective on internet sexuality. Journal of Sex Research, 38, 312–323.

    Google Scholar 

  • Foulis, D., & McCabe, M. P. (1997). Sexual harassment: Factors affecting attitudes and perceptions. Sex Roles, 37, 773–798.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goodson, P., Mccorimick, D., & Evans, A. (2000). Sex and the Internet: A survey instrument to assess college students’ behavior and attitudes. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 3, 129–149.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gossett, J. L., & Byrne, S. (2002). “Click here”: A content analysis of Internet rape sites. Gender and Society, 16, 689–709.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Greenson, L. E., & Williams, R. A. (1986). Social implications of music video for youth: An analysis of the content and effects of MTV. Youth and Society, 18, 177–189.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Groth, M. A. (1978). Men who rape: The psychology of the offenders. New York: Plenum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Ho, P. S. Y., & Tsang, A. K. T. (2002). The things girls shouldn't see: Relocating the penis in sex education in Hong Kong. Sex Education, 2, 61–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hong Kong Census and Statistic Department. (2004). Hong Kong in figures. Hong Kong: Census and Statistic Department.

  • Janghorbani, M., Lam, T. H., & Youth Sexuality Study Task Force. (2003). Sexual media use by young adults in Hong Kong: Prevalence and associated factors. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 32, 545–553.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Jansma, L. L., Linz, D. G., Mulac, A., & Imrich, D. J. (1997). Men's interaction with women after viewing sexually explicit films: Does degradation make a difference? Communication Monographs, 64, 1–24.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kung, E. M., & Farrell, A. D. (2000). The role of parents and peers in early adolescent substance use: An examination of mediating and moderating effects. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 9, 509–528.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Kutchinsky, B. (1991). Pornography and rape: Theory and practice? Evidence from crime data in four countries where pornography is easily available. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 14, 47–64.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Li, X., Feigelman, S., & Stanton, B. (2000). Perceived parental monitoring and health risk behaviors among urban low-income African-American children and adolescents. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 43–48.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Malamuth, N. M., & Check, J. V. P. (1981). The effect of mass media on acceptance of violence against women: A field experiment. Journal of Research of Personality, 15, 436–446.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mehta, M. (2001). Pornography in usenet: A study of 9,800 randomly selected images. CyberPsychology and Behavior, 4, 695–703.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Medea, A., & Thompson, K. (1974). Against rape. New York: Farrar, Strauss & Giroux.

    Google Scholar 

  • Padgett, V. R., Brislin-Slutz, J. A., & Neal, J. A. (1989). Pornography, erotica and attitudes toward women: The effects of repeated exposure. Journal of Sex Research, 26, 479–491.

    Google Scholar 

  • Pryor, J. B. (1987). Sexual harassment proclivities in men. Sex Roles, 17, 269–290.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robbins, R. J. (1994). An assessment of perceptions of parental autonomy support and control: Child and parent correlates. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Department of Psychology, University of Rochester.

  • Santor, D. A., Messervey, D., & Kusumakar, V. (2000). Measuring peer pressure, popularity, and conformity in adolescent boys and girls: Predicting school performance, sexual attitudes, and substance abuse. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 29, 163–182.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sebald, H. (1986). Adolescents’ shifting orientation toward parents and peers: A curlinear trend over recent decades. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48, 5–13.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sherer, K. (1997). College life online: Healthy and unhealthy Internet use. Journal of College Student Development, 38, 655–665.

    Google Scholar 

  • Simons, M. B. G. (2002). Prospective analysis of peer and parent influences on smoking initiation among early adolescents. Prevention Science, 3, 275–283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sprecher, S. (1989). Premarital sexual standards for different categories of individuals. Journal of Sex Research, 26, 232–248.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sprecher, S., McKinney, K., Walsh, R., & Anderson, C. (1988). A revision of the Reiss Premarital Sexual Permissiveness Scale. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 821–828.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stack S., Wasserman, I., & Kern, R. (2004). Adult social bonds and use of Internet pornography. Social Science Quarterly, 85, 75–88.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Strouse, J., Buerkel-Rothfuss, N., & Long, E. (1995). Gender and family as moderators of the relationship between music video exposure and adolescent sexual permissiveness. Adolescence, 30, 505– 521.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Strouse, J. S., Goodwin, M. P., & Roscoe, B. (1994). Correlates of attitudes toward sexual harassment among early adolescents. Sex Roles, 31, 559–577.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tang, C., Wong, C., & Schwarzer, R. (1996). Psychosocial differences between occasional and regular adolescent users of marijuana and heroin. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 25, 219–239.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tsai, C. C., & Lin, C. C. (2004). Taiwanese adolescents’ perceptions and attitudes regarding the Internet: Exploring gender differences. Adolescence, 39, 725–734.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Tsai, C. C., Lin, C. C., & Tsai, M. J. (2001). Developing an internet attitude scale for high school students. Computer and Education, 37, 41–51.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tuten, T. L., & Bosnjak, M. (2001). Understanding differences in web usage: The role of need for cognition and the five factor model of personality. Social Behavior and Personality, 29, 391–398.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Winick, C., & Evans, J. T. (1996). The relationship between nonenforcement of state pornography laws and rates of sex crime arrest. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25, 439–453.

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zillman, D. (2000). Influence of unrestrained access to erotica on adolescents’ and young adults’ dispositions toward sexuality. Journal of Adolescent Health, 27, 41–44.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Zillmann, D., & Bryant, J. (Eds.). (1989). Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zillman, D., & Weaver, J. (1989). Pornography and sexual callousness towards women. In D. Zillman (Ed.), Pornography: Research advances and policy considerations (pp. 95- 125). Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

    Google Scholar 

  • Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioral expressions and biosocial bases of sensation seeking. New York: Cambridge University Press.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Darius K.-S. Chan.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Lam, C.B., Chan, D.KS. The Use of Cyberpornography by Young Men in Hong Kong: Some Psychosocial Correlates. Arch Sex Behav 36, 588–598 (2007). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-006-9124-5

Download citation

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-006-9124-5

Keywords

  • Online pornography
  • Peer influence
  • Sexual harassment
  • Young men
  • Hong Kong