Jon Bing was not only a pioneer in the field of artificial intelligence and law and the legal regulation of technology. He was also an accomplished author of fiction, with an oeuvre spanning from short stories and novels to theatre plays and even an opera. As reality catches up with the imagination of science fiction writers who have anticipated a world shared by humans and non-human intelligences of their creation, some of the copyright issues he has discussed in his academic capacity take on new resonance. How will we regulate copyright when robots are producers and consumers of art? This paper tries to give a sketch of the problem and hints at possible answers that are to a degree inspired by Bing’s academic and creative writing.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Here and at other places, we are very grateful to the suggestions by the referees.
Extrapolating on existing ideas, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/1954704/Robot-conducts-orchestra-for-first-time.html.
See for example https://torrentfreak.com/copyright-apocalypse-trolls-attack-the-net-from-the-future-140928/, last accessed 21 January 2015.
http://www.qentis.com, last accessed 21 January 2015.
http://www.qentis.com/work/work-13/, last accessed 21 January 2015.
http://www.artmarcovici.com/BIOGRAPHY, last accessed 21 January 2015.
A rare attempt, by a group of performance artists, to implement the infinite monkey theorem in reality used six Sulawesi macaque monkeys The monkeys produced five pages consisting mainly of the letter “s” before they started destroying the typewriters with a stone and using it as toilet https://web.archive.org/web/20130120215600/ http://www.vivaria.net/experiments/notes/publication/NOTES_EN.pdf. In a paper dedicated to the memory of Jon Bing, one should point out that elephants would have been the superior choice, as they outperform monkeys when it comes to create art: http://www.elephantartgallery.com, last accessed 14 September 2015.
http://copyright.gov/comp3/chap300/ch300-copyrightable-authorship.pdf, last accessed 21 January 2015.
http://towcenter.org/blog/automated-stories-using-algorithms-to-craft-news-content/, last accessed 21 January 2015.
http://www.cbsnews.com/news/this-post-was-written-by-a-human/, last accessed 21 January 2015.
One of the functions of Pepper, the childminder-robot http://spectrum.ieee.org/automaton/robotics/home-robots/pepper-aldebaran-softbank-personal-robot The Kindle2 has caused similar copyright questions: http://www.fastcompany.com/1160843/authors-guild-says-kindle-2s-text-speech-violates-copyright.
Abie H, Foyn B, Bing J, Blobel B, Pharow P, Delgado J, Tzovaras D (2004) The need for a digital rights management framework for the next generation of e-government services. Electron Gov Int J 1(1):8–28
Asada M et al (2001) Cognitive developmental robotics as a new paradigm for the design of humanoid robots. Robot Auton Syst 37(2):185–193
Bing J (1981) A meeting in Georgestown. In: Aldiss B, Lundwall S (eds) The penguin world omnibus of science fiction. Penguin, London
Bing J (1984) Handbook of legal information retrieval. Elsevier Science Inc., Amsterdam
Bing J (1991) Legal text retrieval systems the unsatisfactory state of the art. JL & Inf Sci 2:1
Bing J (1996) The contribution of technology to the identification of rights, especially in sound and audio–visual works: an overview. Int J Law Inf Technol 4(3):234–254
Bing J (1997) Availability and copyright. IFLA J 23:4
Bing J (1998) A futuristic exploration of virtual reality. In: Jeleff S (ed) A virtual new world?. Council of Europe, Strassburg
Bing J (2003) Deposit, copyright and the notion of a ‘document’. Alexandria 15(3):171–174
Bing J (2004) Copymarks: a suggestion for simple management of copyrighted material. Int Rev Law Comput Technol 18(3):347–374
Bing J (2007) Interview with Erling Rognli. Pegasus 3:24–35
Bing J (2008) The Riddle of the robots. J Int Commer Law Technol 3:197–206
Bing J (2009) Copyright protection of computer programs. In: Derclaye E (ed) Research handbook on the future of EU copyright. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham, pp 401–426
Bing J (2013) Celebrating Gnaeus Flavius and open access to law. J Open Access Law 1:1
Bing J, Sartor G (eds) (2003) The law of electronic agents. Unipubskriftserier, Oslo
Boden MA (1994) Précis of the creative mind: myths and mechanisms. Behav Brain Sci 17(03):519–531
Boden MA (1998) Creativity and artificial intelligence. Artif Intell 103(1):347–356
Boden MA (2009) Computer models of creativity. AI Mag 30(3):23
Borel E (1913) Mécanique Statistique et Irréversibilité. J Phys 5e série 3:189–196
Borges JL (2007) The total library. Penguin, London
Bridy A (2012) Coding creativity: copyright and the artificially intelligent author. Stanf Technol Law Rev 5:1–28
Butler TL (1981) Can a computer be an author-copyright aspects of artificial intelligence. Comm/Ent LS 4:707
Cangelosi A et al (2010) Integration of action and language knowledge: a roadmap for developmental robotics. IEEE Trans Auton Ment Dev 2(3):167–195
Chon M (2007) Intellectual property from below: copyright and capability for education. UC Davis Law Rev 40:803
Collingwood RG (1958) The principles of art, vol 11. Oxford University Press, USA
Contissa G, Laukyte M (2008) Legal knowledge representation: a twofold experience in the domain of intellectual property law. In: Francesconi E et al (eds) Proceedings of the 2008 conference on legal knowledge and information systems. JURIX 2008 IOS Press, Amsterdam, pp 98–107
Cox I, Linnartz J (1998) Some general methods for tampering with water-marks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 16(4):587–593
Dante M, Tamburrini G (2006) Learning robots and human responsibility. Int Rev Inf Ethics 6:46–51
Di Dio C et al (2007) The golden beauty: brain response to classical and renaissance sculptures. PLoS One 2(11):e1201
Favale M (2011) Approximation and DRM: can digital locks respect copyright exceptions? Int J Law Inf Technol 19(4):306–323
Funkhouser C (2007) Prehistoric digital poetry: an archaeology of forms 1959–1995. University of Alabama Press, Tuscaloosa
Gervás P (2000) Wasp: evaluation of different strategies for the automatic generation of Spanish verse. In: Proceedings of the AISB-00 symposium on creative & cultural aspects of AI, pp 93–100
Gervás P (2001) An expert system for the composition of formal Spanish poetry. Knowl-Based Syst 14(3):181–188
Gordon TF (2011) Analyzing open source license compatibility issues with Carneades. In: Proceedings of the 13th international conference on artificial intelligence and law ACM, pp 51–55
Hartman CO (1996) Virtual muse: experiments in computer poetry. Wesleyan University Press, Middletown
Haupenthal G (1994) Geschichte der Würfelmusik in Beispielen, vol. 2. Saarbrücken, Univ., Diss
Hong J, Rouget T (2014) Lesende und glaeubige Roboter im Film. In: Libert W-A et al (eds) Künstliche Menschen. Koenigshausen & Neumann, Würzburg
Horikawa T et al (2013) Neural decoding of visual imagery during sleep. Science 340(6132):639–642
Jiang L, Zhou M (2008) Generating Chinese couplets using a statistical MT approach. In: Proceedings of the 22nd international conference on computational linguistics, vol. 1, pp 377–384. Association for Computational Linguistics
Jordanous A (2012) A standardised procedure for evaluating creative systems: computational creativity evaluation based on what it is to be creative. Cogn Comput 4(3):246–279
Kac E (1997) Foundation and development of robotic art. Art J 56(3):60–67
Kamitani Y, Tong F (2005) Decoding the visual and subjective contents of the human brain. Nat Neurosci 8:679–685
Komuves D et al (2015) Monkeying around with copyright: animals, AIS and authorship in law. Jusletter-IT 26:RZ1–RZ27
Kostelanetz R (1971) Machine art. Centen Rev 15:229–249
Lee E (2012) Digital originality. Vanderbilt J Entertain Technol Law 14(4):919
Lee JH et al (2009) Brain–machine interface via real-time fMRI: preliminary study on thought-controlled robotic arm. Neurosci Lett 450(1):1–6
Legaspi R et al (2007) Music compositional intelligence with an affective flavor. In: Proceedings of the 12th international conference on Intelligent user interfaces ACM, pp 216–224
Lessig L (1999) Code and other laws of cyberspace. Basic books, NY
Mahler T, Bing J (2006) Contractual risk management in an ICT context-searching for a possible interface between legal methods and risk analysis. Scand Stud Law 49:339–357
Manurung R, Ritchie G, Thompson H (2012) Using genetic algorithms to create meaningful poetic text. J Exp Theor Artif Intell 24(1):43–64
Matthias A (2004) The responsibility gap: ascribing responsibility for the actions of learning automata. Ethics Inf Technol 6(3):175–183
McCormack J, d’Inverno M (2012) Computers and creativity. Springer, Berlin
McCutcheon J (2012) Vanishing author in computer-generated works: a critical analysis of recent Australian case law, The. Melb Univ Law Rev 36:915
Moffat DC, Kelly M (2006) An investigation into people’s bias against computational creativity in music composition. Assessment 13:11–17
Mulligan DK, Han J, Burstein AJ (2003) How DRM-based content delivery systems disrupt expectations of personal use. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on digital rights management, pp 77–89
Nadal M et al (2008) Towards a framework for the study of the neural correlates of aesthetic preference. Spat Vis 21(3):379–396
Nierhaus G (2009) Algorithmic composition: paradigms of automated music generation. Springer, Wien
Oberle D, Drefs F, Wacker R, Baumann C, Raabe O (2012) Engineering compliant software: advising developers by automating legal reasoning. SCRIPTed 9(2):280–313
Oliveira HG (2012) PoeTryMe: a versatile platform for poetry generation. In: Proceedings of the ECAI 2012 workshop on computational creativity, concept invention, and general intelligence
Petrie HG (2011) The dilemma of enquiry and learning. Living Control Systems Publ, Hayward
Pogue D (2012) The remote control in your mind. Sci Am 307(6):32
Pynadath DV, Tambe M (2002) Revisiting asimov’s first law: a response to the call to arms. In: Intelligent agents VIII, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, pp 307–320
Raabe O, Wacker R, Funk C, Oberle D, Baumann C (2010) Lawful service engineering-Formalisierung des Rechts im Internet der Dienste. Globale Sicherheit und proaktiver Staat-Die Rolle der Rechtsinformatik 266:643–650
RACTER (1985) The policeman’s beard is half-constructed: computer prose and poetry by Racter. Warner Books, New York
Reese RA (2008) Transformativeness and the Derivative Work Right. Columbia J Law Arts 31(4):2012–2054
Reichardt J (1978) Robots: fact, fiction+ prediction. Thames & Hudson Ltd., London
Riedl MO (2014) The Lovelace 2.0 test of artificial creativity and intelligence. arXiv preprint arXiv:1410.6142
Roos JW (2005) Copyright protection as access barrier for people who read differently: the case for an international approach. IFLA J 31(1):52–67
Rowe R (1993) Interactive music systems: machine listening and composing. MIT Press, Cambridge
Rowe E (2001) Machine musicianship. MIT Press, Cambridge
Schlegel A et al (2015) The artist emerges: visual art learning alters neural structure and function. NeuroImage 105:440–451
Schöffer N (1969) La ville cybernétique. Tchou, Paris
Searle J (1980) Minds. Brains Programs Behav Brain Sci 3(3):417–457
Sharkey A, Sharkey N (2012) Granny and the robots: ethical issues in robot care for the elderly. Ethics Inf Technol 14(1):27–40
Shinkareva SV et al (2008) Using fMRI brain activation to identify cognitive states associated with perception of tools and dwellings. PLoS One 3(1):e1394
Solso RL (2000) The cognitive neuroscience of art: a preliminary fMRI observation. J Conscious Studi 7(8–9):75–86
Stamp M (2003) Digital rights management: the technology behind the hype. J Electron Commer Res 4(3):102–112
Ward JA (1992) Copyrighting context: law for plumbing’s sake. Colum-VLA JL Arts 17:159
Weld D, Etzioni O (1994) The first law of robotics (a call to arms). AAAI 94(1994):1042–1047
Wiggins GA (2006) A preliminary framework for description, analysis and comparison of creative systems. Knowl-Based Syst 19(7):449–458
Wolpaw JR et al (2002) Brain–computer interfaces for communication and control. Clin Neurophysiol 113(6):767–791
Xenakis I (2001) Formalized music: thought and mathematics in composition (Harmonologia series no. 6). Pendragon Press, Hillsdale
Work on this paper was supported by the RCUK funded CREATE network, http://www.create.ac.uk.
In Honour of Jon Bing.
About this article
Cite this article
Schafer, B., Komuves, D., Zatarain, J.M.N. et al. A fourth law of robotics? Copyright and the law and ethics of machine co-production. Artif Intell Law 23, 217–240 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10506-015-9169-7
- Copyright law