Skip to main content

Effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean protein concentrate (SPC) on growth, blood biochemical indexes, non-specific immune enzyme activity, and nutrient apparent digestibility for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei


An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary soy protein concentrate (SPC) levels on growth, blood biochemical indexes, non-specific immune enzyme activity, and nutrient apparent digestibility for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (initial weight 0.44 ± 0.002 g). They were formulated by replacing 0% (the control), 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 60%, and 80% of fish meal (FM) protein with SPC (designed FM, S11, S22, S33, S44, S55, and S66, respectively). With the replacement level of SPC in the diet was higher than 30%, weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei significantly decreased (P < 0.05) with SPC increasing, but feed conversion ratio (FCR) significantly increased (P < 0.05). When the replacement level was above 40%, the protein efficiency ratio (PER), survival rate (SR), apparent digestibility of dry matter, and energy significantly decreased (P < 0.05). On the contrary, the content of triglyceride glucose (TG) in serum was increased significantly (P < 0.05). Apparent digestibility for crude protein and total lipid were significantly higher at higher fishmeal inclusion (0 and 10% SPC replacement) and significantly lower at lower fishmeal inclusion (< 70%) (P < 0.05). In conclusion, with reference to all the parameters, SPC can be used to replace up to 30% of fishmeal protein in shrimp feeds and so the total fishmeal exceeds 70% be used to cater to shrimps’ dietary needs.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  • Akiyama DM, Dominy WG, Lawrence AL (1992) Penaeid shrimp nutrition[M]// Marine Shrimp Culture

  • Anderson RL, Wolf WJ (1995) Compositional changes in trypsin inhibitors, phytic acid, saponins and isoflavones related to soybean. J Nutr 125:581S.

  • AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) (1998) Official methods of analysis (15th ed). Arlington, VA: Association of Official Analytical Chemists

  • Aragão C, Conceição LEC, Dias J, Marques AC, Dinis MT (2003) Soy protein concentrate as a protein source for Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup 1858) diets: Effects on growth and amino acid metabolism of postlarvae. Aquacult Res 34:1443–1452.

  • Berge GM, Grisdale-Helland B, Helland SJ (1999) Soy protein concentrate in diets for Atlantic halibut (Hippo hippo). Aquaculture 178:0–148.

  • Biswas A, Araki H, Sakata T, Nakamori T, Takii K (2019) Optimum fish meal replacement by soy protein concentrate from soymilk and phytase supplementation in diet of red sea bream. Pagrus Major Aquacult 506:51–59.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Boonyaratpalin M, Suraneiranat P, Tunpibal T (1998) Replacement of fish meal with various types of soybean products in diets for the Asian seabass. Lates Calcarifer Aquacult 161:67–78.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Carroll KK (1991) Review of clinical studies on cholesterol-lowering response to soy protein. Aquaculture 91:820.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Chakravortty D, Hensel M (2003) Infection Inducible Nitric Oxide Syntheses and Control of Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens. Microbes Infect 5:621–627.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Chatzifotis S, Polemitou I, Divanach P, Antonopoulou E (2008) Effect of dietary taurine supplementation on growth performance and bile salt activated lipase activity of common dente, Entex dente, fed a fish meal/soy protein concentrate-based diet. Aquaculture 275:0–208.

  • Chen JA, Li XQ, Xu HB, Sun WT, Leng XJ (2017) Substitute of soy protein concentrate for fish meal in diets of white shrimp (Litopenaeus venation). Aquacult Int 25:1303–1315.

  • Coma JD, Carrion D, Zimmerman DR (1995) Use of plasma urea nitrogen as a rapid response criterion to determine the lysine requirement of pigs. J Anim Sci 73:472–481.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Day OJ, González HGP (2000) Soybean protein concentrate as a protein source for turbot Scophthalmus maximus. L Aquaculture Nutrition 6.

  • Deng JM, Mai KS, Ai QH, Zhang WB, Wang XJ (2006) Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate on feed intake and growth of juvenile Japanese flounder, Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquaculture 258:0–513.

  • FAO (2018) The State of Fisheries and Aquaculture in the World 2018 FaoOrg 4:40–41

  • Francis G, Makkar HPS, Becker K (2001) Antineutrino factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199:0–22.

  • Freed LM (1986) Bile salt-stimulated lipase in non-primate milk : longitudinal variation and lipase characteristics in cat and dog milk. Biochim Biophys Acta 878.

  • Hamiltonreeves JM, Rebello SA, Thomas W, Slaton JW, Kurzer MS (2018) Isoflavone-rich soy protein isolate suppresses androgen receptor expression without altering estrogen receptor-[beta] expression or serum hormonal profiles in men at high risk of prostate cancer1–3. J Nut 137:1769–1775.

  • Howles PN, Carter CP, Hui DY (1996) Dietary free and esterified cholesterol absorption in cholesterol esterase (bile salt-stimulated lipase) gene-targeted mice (*). Jbiolchem 271.

  • Jiang GJ, Yu RC, Wang YF, Yan T, Zhou MJ (2004) Identification of nitric oxide synthase in blood cells of Penaeus chinensis (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and its changes during the infection of white spot syndrome virus. Ocean and Lake 35:350.

  • Katya K, Lee S, Yun H, Dagoberto S, Browdy CL, Vazquez-Anon M, Bai SC (2016) Efficacy of inorganic and chelated trace minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) premix sources in Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) fed plant protein based diets. Aquaculture 459:117–123.

  • Kim JD, Kaushik SJ, Breque J (1998) Nitrogen and phosphorus utilization in rainbow trout (Concordances mycoses) fed diets with or without fish meal. Aquat Living Resour 11:261–264

  • Kissil GW, Lupatsch I, Higgs DA, Hardy RW (2000) Dietary substitution of soy and rapeseed protein concentrates for fish meal, and their effects on growth and nutrient utilization in gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Aquacult Res 31:595–601.

  • Knudsen KEB (1997) Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. Animal Feed Sci Technol 67:0–338.

  • Li CC, Huang WW (2018) Effects of fish meal remplacement with soybean protein concentrate on growth performance, feed utilization and digestive enzyme and antioxidant enzyme activities of yellow catfish (PeCelebratorsufluidram). Chin J Animal Nut 30:395–406. CNKI:SUN:DWYX.0.2018–01–048

  • Li EC, Chen LQ, Cai YJ, Liu C (2006) Evaluation of soy protein concentrate (SPC) as a dietary protein source of Chinese mitten-handed crab. East China Normal University, Eriocheir sinensis

    Google Scholar 

  • Lin HZ, Guo Z, Yang Y, Zheng W, Li ZJ (2004) Effect of dietary probiotic on apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei Boone. Aquac Res 35:1441–1447.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Mambrini M, Roem aJ, Carvèdi JP, Lallès JP, Kaushik SJ, Lalle JP (1999) Effects of replacing fish meal with soy protein concentrate and of DL-mentioning supplementation in high-energy, extruded diets on the growth and nutrient utilization of rainbow trout, Concordances mycoses. The online version of this article, along wit Journal of Animal Science 77:2990–2999.

  • Masumoto T, Ruchimat T, Ito Y, Hosokawa H, Shimeno S (1996) Amino acid availability values for several protein sources for yellowtail (Serial underwaist). Aquaculture 146:0–119.

  • Médale Fo, Boujard T, Vallée F, Blanc D, Mambrini M, Roem A, Kaushik SJ (1998) Voluntary feed intake, nitrogen and phosphorus losses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed increasing dietary levels of soy protein concentrate. Aquat Living Resour.

  • Mu HJ, Jiang XL, Liu SQ, Guan HS (1999) Effects of immunology on the activities of acid phosphates, alkaline phosphates and spheroid dismutase in chlamys tarreri. J Qingdao Ocean Univ (Nat Sci Ed) 29:463–468.

  • NRC (2011) Dietary energy utilization and metabolic integration

  • Oyedapo A, Nigeria F, Davies SJ (2004) Use of high percentages of soy protein concentrate as fish meal substitute in practical diets for African Catfish, Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). J Appl Aquac 16(1–2):113–124.

  • Paripatananont T, Boonyaratpalin M, Pengseng P, Chotipuntu PJAR (2001) Substitution of soy protein concentrate for fishmeal in diets of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon. Aquac Res 32:369–374.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ray GW et al (2020) Effects of replacing fishmeal with dietary soybean protein concentrate (SPC) on growth, serum biochemical indices, and antioxidative functions for juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 516.

  • Spinelli J, Houle CR, Wekell JC (1983) The effect of hydrates on the growth of rainbow trout (Salmon Gardner) fed purified diets containing varying quantities of calcium and magnesium. Aquaculture 30:71–83.

  • Ståle et al (1999) Nutrient digestibility in Atlantic salmon and broiler chickens related to viscosity and non-starch polysaccharide content in different soybean products. J Anim Sci.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Stickney RR, Hardy RW, Koch K, Harrold R, Massee KC (2007) The effects of substituting selected oilseed protein concentrates for fish meal in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Diets. J World Aquaculture Soc 27:57–63.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Storebakken, Shearer KD, Roem AJ (1998) Availability of protein, phosphorus and other elements in fish meal, soy-protein concentrate and phrase-treated soy-protein-concentrate-based diets to Atlantic salmon, Salmon salary. Aquaculture.

  • Storebakken, Shearer, Roem (2000) Growth, uptake and retention of nitrogen and phosphorus, and absorption of other minerals in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar fed diets with fish meal and soy–protein concentrate as the main sources of protein. Aquacult Nut 6.

  • Waibel PE, Cuperlovic M, Hurrell RF, Carpenter K (1977) Processing Damage to Lysine and Other Amino Acids in the Manufacture of Blood Meal. J Agric 25:171–175.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yang Q, Zhou X, Zhou Q, Tan B, Dong X (2009) Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients for white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. Boone Aquacult Res 41:78–86.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Zhang JZ, Liu ZP, Tian QQ, Li ZL, Hu Y (2014) Effects of different replacement ratio of fish meal by soybean protein concentrate on growth, digestive enzymes activities and partial hematology indices of rice filed eel (Homopterous albums).

Download references


The work was financially supported by the National Key R&D Program of China 2019YFD0900200, Earmarked Fund for China Agriculture Research System CARS‐47, National Natural Science Foundation of China 31802316.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Qi-hui Yang or Bei-ping Tan.

Ethics declarations

Ethics approval

All procedures involving live animals were approved by the Guangdong Ocean University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.


• This experiment was conducted to assess the possibility of replacing fishmeal (FM) with soybean protein concentrate (SPC) at different levels on growth, blood biochemical indexes, non-specific immune enzyme activity, and nutrient apparent digestibility for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei.

• In the basic diet of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei with 40% protein and 30% fish meal content, with growth performance as an indicator, the appropriate level of SPC to replace fish meal was 30%.

• When the level of SPC replacement fish meal was higher than 30%, the growth performance and feed utilization of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei will decrease.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zhu, ZH., Yang, Qh., Tan, Bp. et al. Effects of replacing fishmeal with soybean protein concentrate (SPC) on growth, blood biochemical indexes, non-specific immune enzyme activity, and nutrient apparent digestibility for juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei. Aquacult Int 29, 2535–2554 (2021).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: