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Shrimp disease management for sustainable aquaculture: innovations from nanotechnology and biotechnology


Infectious diseases in shrimp are one of the significant constraints in shrimp aquaculture across the globe. The alarming increase of antibiotic resistance in bacteria has rendered antibiotic therapy a controversial subject today. Therefore, the practice of antibiotic therapy in aquaculture needs to be dissuaded and appropriate alternatives have to be found out. For the past few decades, the field of nanotechnology and biotechnology has proposed novel and effective solutions involving the use of nanoparticles, biofilm-based vaccines, algal extracts, phytobiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics to combat infectious diseases. Algal extracts, phytobiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics are compounds of biological origin due to which they are safe to use in aquaculture settings. With the advent of green and bio-nanotechnology, nanomaterials are also becoming a safer alternative to antibiotic therapy. Vaccines developed from antigenic components of bacterial biofilms are more promising than regular vaccines synthesized from antigens of planktonic forms. Some of these methods have extended applications in shrimp aquaculture in the form of immunomodulants, diagnostic tools, drug and vaccine carriers. The hazards of chemotherapy in shrimp aquaculture can be overcome by replacing antibiotics and other chemical agents with these new approaches. Adopting these strategies makes aquaculture-based food more organic, consumer-friendly and helps in establishing sustainable aquaculture. This review reveals the ill effects of antibiotic therapy in shrimp aquaculture and casts light on the advantages and the research gaps in these strategies that need to be addressed.

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The authors are thankful to the Department of Biotechnology, Ministry of Science and Technology, India, for the research grant.

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PSS and RR performed the data collection, compilation, and preparation of the first draft; GSK conceived the concept and guided the literature survey synthesis; JS guided the drafting and correction of the drafts.

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Correspondence to Joseph Selvin.

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The authors declare no competing interests.

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Seethalakshmi, P., Rajeev, R., Kiran, G.S. et al. Shrimp disease management for sustainable aquaculture: innovations from nanotechnology and biotechnology. Aquacult Int 29, 1591–1620 (2021).

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