The development of rearing protocols promoting the larval development, pre and post-metamorphosis are key for echinoculture. Mixed diets combining diatom with other microalgae have been used with success and Rhodomonas sp. (Rho)-based diets showed promising results in larval survival. This study was aimed to evaluate the rearing success of Paracentrotus lividus larvae fed with mixed diets combining Rho with two diatoms, Phaedactylum tricornutum (Phae) and Chaetoceros calcitrans (Chae) in two experiments. In experiment I, the effect of the mixed diet of Rho and Phae (Mix I) was compared with monospecific diets of both species, while in experiment II, Rho was combined with Chae (Mix II) and compared with both monospecific diets. In experiment I, larvae fed with Rho I and Mix I diets grew faster than larvae fed with Phae I diet, attained the competence earlier with survival rates of 15-16%. In experiment II, the larvae fed with Rho were larger and the larvae fed with Mix II attained the highest survival rate (32.22%). The analysis of the larval biometric models showed that the larger larvae, with bigger stomachs, and shorter post-oral arm attained the age-at-competence earlier with higher survival rates. In conclusion, the larvae fed with a combination of Rho with the selected diatoms showed identical growth performance and condition to larvae fed with Rho monospecific diet but obtained higher survival rate. These results indicate that mixed-diatoms diets may be more suitable for P. lividus larval rearing.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The data that support the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author upon reasonable request.
No code was developed in the present study.
Ahmed HO, Elmasry E, El-Sayed AFM, Abdel Razek FA (2016) Larval growth and metamorphosis of South Eastern Mediterranean sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) fed different microalgal diets. J Fish Aquat Sci 11:287–295. https://doi.org/10.3923/jfas.2016.287.295
Andrew NL, Agatsuma Y, Ballesteros E, Bazhin AG, Creaser EP, Barnes DKA, Botsford LW, Bradbury A, Campbell A, Dixon JD, Einarsson S, Gerring PK, Hebert K, Hunter M, Hur SB, Johnson CR, Juinio-Menez MA, Kalvass P, Miller RJ, Moreno CA, Palleiro JS, Rivas D, Robinson SML, Schroeter SC, Steneck RS, Vadas RL, Woodby DA, Xiaoqi Z (2002) Status and management of world sea urchin fisheries. Oceanogr Mar Biol 40:343–425. https://doi.org/10.1201/9780203180594.ch7
Araújo J, Candeias-Mendes A, Monteiro I, Teixeira D, Soares F, Pousão-Ferreira P (2020) The use of diatom Skeletonema costatum on aquaculture-produced purple sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larvae and post-larvae diet. Aquac Res 51:2545–2554. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.14597
Azad AK, Mckinley S, Pearce CM (2010) Factors influencing the growth and survival of larval and juvenile echinoids. Rev Aquac 2:121–137. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1753-5131.2010.01030.x
Azad AK, Pearce CM, McKinley RS (2011) Influence of microalgal species and dietary rations on larval development and survival of the purple sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus (Stimpson, 1857). Aquaculture. 322-323:210–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.09.029
Basch LV (1996) Effects of algal and larval densities on development and survival of asteroid larvae. Mar Biol 126:693–701. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00351336
Bertocci I, Dominguez R, Machado I, Freitas C, Domínguez Godino J, Sousa-Pinto I, Gaspar MB (2014) Multiple effects of harvesting on populations of the purple sea urchin paracentrotus lividus in north Portugal. Fish Res 150:60–65. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fishres.2013.10.010
Bohlin K (1898) Zur Morphologie und Biologie einzelliger Algen. Öfversigt af Kongliga [Svenska] Vetenskadademiens Förhanligar. Stockholm 54:507–529
Boudouresque CF, Verlaque M (2013) Paracentrotus Lividus, vol 38. Elsevier. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-396491-5.00021-6
Brundu G, Vian Monleón L, Vallainc D, Carboni S (2016) Effects of larval diet and metamorphosis cue on survival and growth of sea urchin post-larvae (Paracentrotus lividus; Lamarck, 1816). Aquaculture. 465:265–271. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2016.09.014
Brundu G, Vallainc D, Baroli M, Figus AM, Pinna A, Carboni S (2017) Effects of on-demand feeding on sea urchin larvae (Paracentrotus lividus; Lamarck, 1816), development, survival and microalgae utilization. Aquac Res 48:1550–1560. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.12990
Buitrago E, Lodeiros C, Lunar K, Alvarado D, Indorf F, Frontado K, Vasquez Z (2005) Mass production of competent larvae of the sea urchin Lytechinus variegatus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea). Aquac Int 13:359–367. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-004-6551-y
Burke RD (1981) Structure of the digestive tract of the pluteus larva of Dendraster excentricus (Echinodermata: Echinoida). Zoomorphology. 98:209–225. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00312050
Butcher RW (1959) An introductory account of the smaller algae of British coastal waters. Part I: Introduction and Chlorophyceae. Fish Invest 1:1–74
Byrne M (1990) Annual reproductive cycles of the commercial sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus from an exposed intertidal and a sheltered subtidal habitat on the west coast of Ireland. Mar Biol 104:275–289. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01313269
Carbonara S, D’Adamo R, Novelli A, Pelosi S, Fabbrocini A (2018) Ground Ulva solution (GUS): a promising metamorphosis cue for Paracentrotus lividus larviculture. Aquaculture. 491:289–294. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.03.044
Carbonara S, D’Adamo R, Novelli A, Pelosi S, Fabbrocini A (2019) Increasing the stocking density in Paracentrotus lividus larviculture: effects on survival and metamorphosis rates. Aquac Res 50:2469–2476. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.14200
Carboni S, Vignier J, Chiantore M, Tocher DR, Migaud H (2012) Effects of dietary microalgae on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus throughout larval development. Aquaculture. 324-325:250–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2011.10.037
Carboni S, Hughes AD, Atack T, Tocher DR, Migaud H (2013) Fatty acid profiles during gametogenesis in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus): effects of dietary inputs on gonad, egg and embryo profiles. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol 164:376-382. https:// doi:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2012.11.010
Carboni S, Kelly MS, Hughes AD, Vignier J, Atack T, Migaud H (2014) Evaluation of flow through culture technique for commercial production of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larvae. Aquac Res 45:768–772. https://doi.org/10.1111/are.12019
Cárcamo PF, Candia AI, Chaparro OR (2005) Larval development and metamorphosis in the sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea): effects of diet type and feeding frequency. Aquaculture. 249:375–386. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2005.03.026
Casal A, Costas D, Rodriguez R, Costoya N, Rial LRD (2009) Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck 1816, expuestas a diferentes inductores algales. XIII Congreso Nacional de Acuicultura
Castilla-Gavilán M, Buzin F, Cognie B, Dumay J, Turpin V, Decottignies P (2018a) Optimising microalgae diets in sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus larviculture to promote aquaculture diversification. Aquaculture. 490:251–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.02.003
Castilla-Gavilán M, Turpin V, Buzin F, Cognie B, Decottignies P (2018b) Optimizing metamorphosis in Paracentrotus lividus aquaculture using alternative macroalgae species to Corallina sp. Aquac Int 26:1511–1518. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-018-0305-8
Chícharo MA, Chícharo L (2008) RNA: DNA ratio and other nucleic acid derived indices in Marine ecology. Int J Mol Sci 9:1453–1471
De La Uz S, Rodrfguezi JC, Carrasco F, Anadon N (2013) Metamorphosis, growth and survival of early juveniles of Paracentrotus lividus (echinodermata: Echinoidea): Effects of larval diet and settlement inducers. Cah Biol Mar 54:691–695
Delaporte M, Soudant P, Moal J, Lambert C, Quéré C, Miner P, Samain JF (2003) Effect of a mono-specific algal diet on immune functions in two bivalve species - Crassostrea gigas and Ruditapes philippinarum. J Exp Biol 206:3053–3064. https://doi.org/10.1242/jeb.00518
Dupont S, Ortega-Martínez O, Thorndyke M (2010) Impact of near-future ocean acidification on echinoderms. Ecotoxicology. 19(3):449–462. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10646-010-0463-6
Fernández-Reiriz MJ, Perez-Camacho A, Ferreiro MJ, Blanco J, Planas M, Campos MJ, Labarta U (1989) Biomass production and variation in the biochemical profile (total protein, carbohydrates, RNA, lipids and fatty acids) of seven species of marine microalgae. Aquaculture. 83:17–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/0044-8486(89)90057-4
George SB, Walker D (2007) Short-term fluctuation in salinity promotes rapid larval development and metamorphosis in Dendraster excentricus. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 349:113–130. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2007.05.010
George SB, Fox C, Wakeham S (2008) Fatty acid composition of larvae of the sand dollar Dendraster excentricus (Echinodermata) might reflect FA composition of the diets. Aquaculture. 285:167–173. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2008.08.010
Gibson G (1995) Why be choosy? Temporal changes in larval sensitivity to several naturally-occurring metamorphic inducers in the opisthobranch Haminaea callidegenita. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 194:9–24. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(95)00075-5
Gosselin P, Jangoux M (1996) Induction of metamorphosis in Paracentrotus lividus larvae (Echinodermata, Echinoidea). Oceanol Acta 19:293–296
Grosjean P, Spirlet C, Vaïtilingon D, Jangoux M, Gosselin P (1998) Land-based, closed-cycle echiniculture of Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck) (Echinoidea: Echinodermata): a long-term experiment at a pilot scale. J Shellfish Res:1523–1531
Hart MW, Strathmann RR (1994) Functional Consequences of Phenotypic Plasticity in Echinoid Larvae. Marine Biological Laboratory Stable URL : http://www.jstor.org/stable/1542275 REFERENCES Linked references are ava.186:291-299.
Hibberd DJ (1981) Notes on the taxonomy and nomenclature of the algal classes Eustigmatophyceae and Tribophyceae (synonym Xanthophyceae). Bot J Linn Soc 82:93–119
Hillebrand H (1999) Biovolume calculation for pelagic and benthic microalgae. J Phycol 35:403–424
Hodin J, Ferner MC, Ng G, Lowe CJ, Gaylord B (2015) Rethinking competence in marine life cycles: ontogenetic changes in the settlement response of sand dollar larvae exposed to turbulence. R Soc Open Sci 2, 2(6). https://doi.org/10.1098/rsos.150114
Jackson DJ, Degnan SM, Degnan BM (2012) Variation in rates of early development in Haliotis asinina generate competent larvae of different ages. Front Zool 9:1–9. https://doi.org/10.1186/1742-9994-9-2
Jimmy RA, Kelly MS, Beaumont AR (2003) The effect of diet type and quantity on the development of common sea urchin larvae Echinus esculentus. Aquaculture. 220:261–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(02)00193-X
Kabeya N, Sanz-Jorquera A, Carboni S, Davie A, Oboh A, Monroig O (2017) Biosynthesis of polyunsaturated fatty acids in sea urchins: molecular and functional characterization of three fatty acyl desaturaes from Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck 1816). PlosOne 12:e0169374. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169374
Kelly MS, Hunter AJ, Scholfield CL, McKenzie JD (2000) Morphology and survivorship of larval Psammechinus miliaris (Gmelin) (Echinodermata: Echinoidea) in response to varying food quantity and quality. Aquaculture. 183:223–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0044-8486(99)00296-3
Lamarck JBM de(1816) Histoire naturelle des animaux sans vertèbres. Tome troisième, Paris
Lawrence JM (2007) Chapter 1 - Edible Sea Urchins: Use and Life-History Strategies BT - Edible Sea Urchins: Biology. Edible Sea Urchins Biol. 1-9. papers3://publication/uuid/42D2648F-7A65-487F-958A-6B98CC020755
Liu H, Kelly MS, Cook EJ, Black K, Orr H, Zhu JX, Dong SL (2007) The effect of diet type on growth and fatty-acid composition of sea urchin larvae, I. Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (Echinodermata). Aquaculture. 264:247–262. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.12.021
Liu W, Pearce CM, Alabi AO, Gurney-Smith H (2009) Effects of microalgal diets on the growth and survival of larvae and post-larvae of the basket cockle, Clinocardium nuttallii. Aquaculture 293:248–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2009.04.032
Lourenço S, Valente LMP, Andrade C (2019) Meta-analysis on nutrition studies modulating sea urchin roe growth, colour and taste. Rev Aquac 11:766–781. https://doi.org/10.1111/raq.12256
Martínez-Fernández E, Southgate PC (2007) Use of tropical microalgae as food for larvae of the black-lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera. Aquaculture. 263:220–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2006.09.040
McAlister JS, Miner BG (2018) Phenotypic plasticity of feeding structures in marine invertebrate larvae. Evol Ecol Mar Invert Lar 103–123. https://doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780198786962.003.0008
McEdward LR, Herrera JC (1999) Body form and skeletal morphometrics during larval development of the sea urchin lytechinus variegatus lamarck. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 232:151–176. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(98)00106-3
Miner BG (2005) Evolution of feeding structure plasticity in marine invertebrate larvae: a possible trade-off between arm length and stomach size. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 315:117–125. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2004.09.011
Monfort MC (2002) Fish roe in Europe: Supply and demand conditions. FAO/GLOBEFISH Res Program 72
Ouréns R, Naya I, Freire J (2015) Mismatch between biological, exploitation, and governance scales and ineffective management of sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) fisheries in Galicia. Mar Policy 51:13–20
Pais A, Serra S, Meloni G, Saba S, Ceccherelli G (2012) Harvesting effects on Paracentrotus lividus population structure: A case study from Northwestern Sardinia, Italy, before and after the fishing season. J Coastal Res 28:570–575
Paredes E, Bellas J, Costas D (2015) Sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) larval rearing - culture from cryopreserved embryos. Aquaculture. 437:366–369. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2014.12.022
Pedrotti ML (1995) Food selection (size and flavour) during development of echinoderm larvae. Invertebr Reprod Dev 27:29–39. https://doi.org/10.1080/07924259.1995.9672431
Pedrotti ML, Fenaux L (1993) Effects of food diet on the survival, development and growth rates of two cultured echinoplutei (Paracentrotus lividus and Arbacia lixula). Invertebr Reprod Dev. 2459-70. https://doi.org/10.1080/07924259.1993.9672332
Pinto H (2018) Efeito dos modos de preservação da microalga Rhodomonas baltica (Karsten, 1898) no cultivo do copépode Acartia tonsa (Dana, 1849). Dissertion, Polytechnic of Leiria.
Qi S, Zhao X, Zhang W, Wang C, He M, Chang Y, Ding J (2018) The effects of 3 different microalgae species on the growth, metamorphosis and MYP gene expression of two sea urchins, Strongylocentrotus intermedius and S. nudus. Aquaculture. 492:123–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.02.007
Rahman S, Tsuchiya M, Uehara T (2009) Effects of temperature on hatching rate, embryonic development and early larval survival of the edible sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla. Biologia (Bratisl) 64:768–775. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-009-0135-2
Repolho TFBR, Costa MH, Luís OJ, Gago JAEM (2011) Broodstock diet effect on sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) endotrophic larvae development: potential for their year-round use in environmental toxicology assessment. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:584–592. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2010.12.004
Rial D, Rial P, Casal A, Costoya N, Costas D (2018) Induction of settlement, growth and survival of juveniles of Paracentrotus lividus. Aquaculture. 483:16–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.10.005
Sartori D, Pellegrini D, Macchia S, Gaion A (2016) Can echinoculture be a feasible and effective activity? Analyses of fast reliable breeding conditions to promote gonadal growth and sexual maturation in Paracentrotus lividus. Aquaculture 451:39–46
Schiopu D, George SB, Castell J (2006) Ingestion rates and dietary lipids affect growth and fatty acid composition of Dendraster excentricus larvae. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 328:47–75. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jembe.2005.06.019
Spirlet C, Grosjean P, Jangoux M (1998) Reproductive cycle of the echinoid paracentrotus lividus: Analysis by means of the maturity index. Invertebr Reprod Dev 34:69–81. https://doi.org/10.1080/07924259.1998.9652355
Stefánsson G, Kristinsson H, Ziemer N, Hannon C, James P (2017) Markets for sea urchins: a review of global supply and markets. 45. https://doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.12657.99683
Strathmann RR, Fenaux L, Strathmann MF (1992) Heterochronic developmental plasticity larval sea urchins. Evolution (N Y) 46:972–986
Suckling CC, Terrey D, Davies AJ (2018) Optimising stocking density for the commercial cultivation of sea urchin larvae. Aquaculture. 488:96–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.01.022
Takano H (1968) On the diatom Chaetoceros calcitrans (Paulsen) emend and its dwarf form pumilus forma nov. Bull Tokai Reg Fish Res Lab 55:1–7
Tocher D (2010) Fatty acid requirements in ontogeny of marine and freshwater fish. Aquac Res 41:717–732. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2109.2008.02150.x
Vaïtilingon D, Morgan R, Grosjean P, Gosselin P, Jangoux M (2001) Effects of delayed metamorphosis and food rations on the perimetamorphic events in the echinoid Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816) (Echinodermata). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 262:41–60. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-0981(01)00281-7
Volkman JK, Jeffrey SW, Nichols PD, Rogers GI, Garland CD (1989) Fatty acid and lipid composition of 10 species of microalgae used in mariculture. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 128:219–240. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-0981(89)90029-4
Zar JH (2010) Biostatistical analysis, 5th edn. Prentice-Hall/Pearson, Upper Saddle River
Zupo V, Glaviano F, Caramiello D, Mutalipassi M (2018) Effect of five benthic diatoms on the survival and development of Paracentrotus lividus post-larvae in the laboratory. Aquaculture. 495:13–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2018.05.028
The authors wish to thank the valuable comments made by the two anonymous reviewers that greatly improve the content of this study. This study had the financial support of Operational Programme MAR2020 through the project 16-02-01-FMP-0004: Ouriceira Aqua: Aquaculture and Enhancement of Gonad Production in the Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), and the support of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), through the strategic project UIDB/ 04292/2020 granted to MARE-Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre.
This study had the financial support of Operational Programme MAR2020 through the project 16-02-01-FMP-0004: Ouriceira Aqua: Aquaculture and Enhancement of Gonad Production in the Sea Urchin (Paracentrotus lividus), and the support of Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT), through the strategic project UIDB/ 04292/2020 granted to MARE-Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre.
The present study did not involve vertebrates, protected or endangered species. All experimental procedures on sea urchins were conducted in compliance with the Portuguese law and the Directive 2010/63/EU.
Consent to participate
All co-authors agreed to participate in the manuscript writing.
Consent for publication
All co-authors agreed with the final content of this manuscript.
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.
Handling Editor: Gavin Burnell
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
This article is part of the Topical Collection on Future of Aquaculture Nutrition and Feed Research.
Rights and permissions
About this article
Cite this article
Gomes, A., Lourenço, S., Santos, P.M. et al. Effects of single and mixed-diatom diets on growth, condition, and survival of larvae of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus (Lamarck, 1816). Aquacult Int 29, 1069–1090 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-021-00676-8
- Mixed diets
- Larval condition