Skip to main content

Influence of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on haematological and immunological responses and disease resistance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage, 1878) juveniles


This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of mannan oligosacharide (MOS) as dietary supplement on haematological parameters, immune response and protection against Aeromonas hydrophila in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, Sauvage, 1878) juveniles. Triplicate groups of juvenile striped catfish (initial weight 20.41 ± 1.64 g) were fed twice per day at 2.5% of body weight for 12 weeks, with 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 or 0.8% MOS diets. At the end of the feeding trial, fish were intraperitoneally challenged with 1 × 106 CFU ml−1of A. hydrophila and mortalities were recorded over 21 days. The haematological and immunological parameters were assessed both in pre- and post-challenged fish groups. Dietary inclusion of MOS did not show any significant influence on the majority of the haematological parameters of striped catfish when they were not infected. But it showed a significant positive influence on some of the most important parameters, namely RBC, WBC, lymphocyte, granulocyte and lysozyme activity and survival, after a 2-week challenge with A. hydrophila. After 2-week infection with A. hydrophila, a better concentration of red blood cell (RBC), white blood cell (WBC), granulocyte, total Ig content, lysozyme activity and survival were observed when striped catfish were fed with MOS at 0.4% and above, with significantly highest at 0.6% MOS diet than the control diet. Based on the results of this study, it is concluded that supplementation of MOS at least 0.4% is sufficient to activate the immune response and makes the striped catfish more resistant to A. hydrophila infection.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3



Mannan oligosaccharide


Fructo oligosaccharides


Short-chain fructo oligosaccharides


Galacto oligosaccharides


Erythrocyte sedimentation rate


Packed cell volume




Red blood cell


White blood cell


Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration


Mean corpuscular haemoglobin


Mean corpuscular volume


Sodium chloride




Polyethylene glycol


Analysis of variance


Standard deviation


  • Abu-Elala N, Marzouk M, Moustafa M (2013) Use of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae biotic forms as immune-modulator and growth promoter for Oreochromis niloticus challenged with some fish pathogens. Int J Vet Sci Med 1:21–29

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ahmad MH, El-Mousallamy A, Awad SMM, El-Naby ASA (2014) Evaluation of Bio-Mos® as a feed additive on growth performance, physiological and immune responses of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L). J Appl Sci Res 9(10):6441–6449

    Google Scholar 

  • Akrami R, Chitsaz H, Hezaarjaribi A, Ziaei R (2012a) Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on growth performance and immune response of gibel carp juveniles (Carassius auratus gibelio). J Vet Adv 2(10):507–513

    Google Scholar 

  • Akrami R, Razeghi-Mansour M, Chitsaz H, Ziaee R, Ahmadi Z (2012b) Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on growth performance, survival, body composition and some hematological parameters of carp juvenile (Cyprinus carpio). J Anim Sci Adv 2(11):879–885

    Google Scholar 

  • Akter MN, Sutriana A, Hashim R, Mohd Nor SA (2018) Effectiveness of the fermentative extract of Lactobacillus acidophilus as antimicrobials against Aeromonas hydrophila. Jurnal Kedokteran Hewan. 12(4):81–88

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Dohail MA, Hashim R, Aliyu-Paiko M (2009) Effects of the probiotic, Lactobacillus acidophilus, on the growth performance, haematology parameters and immunoglobulin concentration in African Catfish (Clariasgariepinus, Burchell 1822) fingerling. Aquacult Res 40:1642–1652

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Aly SM, Ahmed YAG, Ghareeb AAA, Mohamed MF (2008) Studies on Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus, as potential probiotics, on the immune response and resistance of Tilapia nilotica (Oreochromis nilotica) to challenge infections. Fish Shellfish Immunol 25:128–136

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Amar EC, Kiron V, Satoh S, Okamoto N, Watanabe T (2000) Effect of dietary β-carotene on the immune response of rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss. Fish Sci 66:1068–1075

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Balcázar JL, de Blas I, Ruiz-Zarzuela I, Vendrell D, Calvo AC, Márquez I, Gironés O, Muzquiz JL (2007) Changes in intestinal microbiota and humoral immune response following probiotic administration in brown trout (Salmo trutta). Br J Nutr 97(3):522–527

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Britton CJ (1993) Disorders of the blood, 9th edn. I. A. Churchill, Ld., London

    Google Scholar 

  • Buentello JA, Neill WH, Gatlin DM III (2010) Effects of dietary prebiotics on the growth, feed efficiency and non-specific immunity of juvenile red drum Sciaenops ocellatus fed soybean-based diets. Aquacult Res 41(3):411–418

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Burr G, Gatlin D III, Ricke S (2005) Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract of fish and the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics in Finfish aquaculture. J World Aquacult Soc 36(4):425–436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Demers NE, Bayne CJ (1997) The immediate effects of stress on hormones and plasma lysozyme in rainbow trout. Dev Comp Immunol 21(4):363–373

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Denji KA, Mansour MR, Akrami R, Ghobadi S, Jafarpour SA, Mirbeygi SK (2015) Effect of dietary prebiotic mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth performance, intestinal microflora, body composition, haematological and blood serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Juveniles. J Fish Aquat Sci 10(4):255–265

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Moate R, Davies SJ, Spring P, Sweetman J, Bradley G (2009) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide supplementation modulates intestinal microbial ecology and improves gut morphology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. J Anim Sci 87:3226–3234

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Do Huu H, Jones CM (2014) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on juvenile spiny lobster Panulirus homarus (Palinuridae). Aquacult 432:258–264

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Duncan DB (1955) Multiple ranges and multiple (F) test. Biomet 11:1–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • El-Ezabi MM, El-Serafy SS, Essa MA, Lall S, Daboor SM, Esmael NA (2011) The viability of probiotics as a factor influencing the immune response in the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Egypt J Aquat Biol Fish 15(1):105–124

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gelibolu S, Yanar Y, Genc MA, Genc E (2018) The effect of mannan-oligosaccharide (MOS) as a feed supplement on growth and some blood parameters of Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata). Turk J Fish Aquat Sci 18:817–823

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: Introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401–1412

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Gopalakannan A, Arul V (2010) Enhancement of the innate immune system and disease-resistant activity in Cyprinus carpio by oral administration of β-glucan and whole cell yeast. Aquacult Res 41:884–892

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gültepe N, Hisar O, Salnur S, Hoşsu B, Tanrikul TT, Aydın S (2012) Preliminary Assessment of dietary mannan oligosaccharides on growth performance and health status of gilthead seabream Sparus auratus. J Aquat Anim Health 24(1):37–42

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Haney DC, Hursh DA, Mix MC, Winton JR (1992) Physiological and hematological changes in chum salmon artificially infected with Erythrocytic Necrosis Virus. J Aquat Anim Health 4(1):48–57

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ikeda Y, Ozaki H, Hayama K, Ikeda S, Minami T (1976) Diagnostic study on blood constituents in the yellow tail inoculated with Nocardia Kampachi. Bull Japan Soc Sci Fish 42:1055–1064

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Jalali MA, Ahmadifar E, Sudagar M, Takami GA (2009) Growth efficiency, body composition, survival and haematological changes in great sturgeon (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1758) juveniles fed diets supplemented with different levels of Ergosan. Aquacult Res 40:804–809

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Kumar MP, Ramulu KS (2013) Haematological changes in Pangasius hypophthalmus infected with Aeromonas hydrophila. Int J Food Agricult Vet Sci 3(1):70–75

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ (1951) Protein measurement with the folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem 193:263–275

    Google Scholar 

  • Manning TS, Gibson GR (2004) Prebiotics. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 18(2):287–298

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mansour MR, Akrami R, Ghobadi SH, Denji KA, Ezatrahimi N, Gharaei A (2012) Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on growth performance, survival, body composition, and some hematological parameters in giant sturgeon juvenile (Huso huso Linnaeus, 1754). J Fish Physiol Biochem 38(3):829–835

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Misra CK, Das BK, Mukherjee SC, Pattnaik P (2006) Effect of long term administration of dietary β-glucan on immunity, growth and survival of Labeo rohita fingerlings. Aquacult 255(1):82–94

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Momeni-Moghaddam P, Keyvanshokooh S, Ziaei-Nejad S, Salati AP, Pasha-Zanoosi H (2015) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus Carpio) fingerlings. Vet Res Forum 6(3):239–244

    PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  • Munir MB, Hashim R, Nor SAM, Marsh TL (2018) Effect of dietary prebiotics and probiotics on snakehead (Channa striata) health: Haematology and disease resistance parameters against Aeromonas hydrophila. Fish Shellfish Immunol 75:99–108

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Natt MP, Herrick CA (1952) A new blood diluent for counting the erythrocytes and leukocytes of the chicken. Poult Sci 31(4):735–738

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Newman K (1994) Mannan-oligosaccharides: natural polymers with significant impact on the gastrointestinal microflora and the immune system. In: Lyons TP, Jacques KA (eds) Biotechnology in the feed industry. Proceedings of Alltech’s tenth annual symposium. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp 167–174

    Google Scholar 

  • Nochta I, Tuboly T, Halas V, Babinszky L (2009) Effect of different levels of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on some immunological variables in weaned piglets. J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr 93(4):496–504

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Ofek I, Goldhar J, Keisari Y, Sharon N (1995) Nonopsonic phagocytosis of microorganisms. Annu Rev Microbiol 49(1):239–276

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Oliver G, Lallier R, Lariviére S (1981) A toxigenic profile of A. hydrophila and A. sorbia isolated from fish. Can J Microbiol 27(3):330–333

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Panigrahi A, Kiron V, Puangkaew J, Kobayashi T, Satoh S, Sugita H (2005) The viability of probiotic bacteria as a factor influencing the immune response in rainbow trout Onchorhynchus mykiss. Aquacult 243:241–254

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Pryor GS, Royes JB, Chapman FA, Miles RD (2003) Mannan oligosaccharides in fish nutrition: Effects of dietary supplementation on growth and gastrointestinal villi structure in Gulf of Mexico sturgeon. N Am J Aquacult 65(2):106–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raa J (1996) The use of immunostimulatory substances in fish and shellfish farming. Rev Fish Sci 4(3):229–288

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Raa J, Roerstad G, Engstad R, Robersten B (1992) The use of immunostimulants to increase resistance of aquatic organisms to microbial infections. In: Shariff IM, Subasingle RP, Arthurs JR (eds) Diseases in Asian Aquaculture, Fish Health Section. Asian Fisheries Scociety, Manila, pp 39–50

    Google Scholar 

  • Ringø E, Gatesoupe FJ (1998) Lactic acid bacteria in fish: a review. Aquacult 160(3-4):177–203

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roberts RJ (1978) The pathophysiology and systemic pathology of teleosts. In: Roberts RJ (ed) Fish Pathology. Bailliere Tindal, London, pp 55–91

    Google Scholar 

  • Sado RY, Bicudo ÁJDA, Cyrino JEP (2008) Feeding dietary mannan oligosaccharides to juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus), has no effect on hematological parameters and showed decreased feed consumption. J World Aquacult Soc 39(6):821–826

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sado RY, Domanski FR, Freitas PF, Sales FB (2015) Growth, immune status and intestinal morphology of Nile tilapia fed dietary prebiotics (Mannan oligosaccharides-MOS). Lat Am J Aquat Res 43(5):944–952

    Google Scholar 

  • Salaghi Z, Imanpuor M, Taghizadeh V (2013) Effect of different levels of probiotic primalac on growth performance and survival rate of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). Glob Vet 11(2):238–242

    Google Scholar 

  • Salze G, McLean E, Schwarz MH, Craig SR (2008) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide enhances salinity tolerance and gut development of larval cobia. Aquacult 274(1):148–152

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Samrongpan C, Areechon N, Yoonpundhan R, Srisapoome P (2008) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide on growth, survival and disease resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus Linnaeus) fry. In: 8th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture. pp 345–353

  • Sang HM, Fotedar R (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide dietary supplementation on performances of the tropical spiny lobster juvenile (Panulirus ornatus). Fish Shellfish Immunol 28(3):483–489

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sang HM, Ky LT, Fotedar R (2009) Dietary supplementation of mannan oligosaccharide improves the immune responses and survival of marron, Cherax tenuimanus (Smith, 1912) when challenged with different stressors. Fish Shellfish Immunol 27:341–348

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Sang HM, Fotedar R, Filer K (2011) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on the survival, growth, immunity and digestive enzyme activity of freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor Clark (1936). Aquacult Nutr 17(2):629–635

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Schäperclaus W, Kulow H, Schreckenbach K (1992) Fish Diseases, vol 1, 5th edn. Publishes by A. A. Balkem/ Protterdam, Rotterdam, p 595

    Google Scholar 

  • Sirimanapong W, Thompson KD, Kledmanee K, Thaijongrak P, Collet B, Ooi EL, Adams A (2014) Optimization and standardisation of functional immune assays for striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) to compare their immune response to live and heat killed Aeromonas hydrophila as models of infection and vaccination. Fish Shelfish Immunol 40:374–383

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Siwicki AK, Anderson DP (1993) Non-specific defence mechanisms assay in fish: II. Potential killing activity of neutophils and macrophages, lysozyme activity in serum and organs and total immunoglobulin level in serum. Disease diagnosis and prevention methods. FAO-project GCP/INT/JPA, IFI Olsztyn, Poland, pp. 105–121

  • Staykov Y, Spring P, Denev S, Sweetman J (2007) Effect of a mannan oligosaccharide on the growth performance and immune status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquacult Int 15:153–161

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Talpur AD, Munir MB, Mary A, Hashim R (2014) Dietary probiotics and prebiotics improved food acceptability, growth performance, haematology and immunological parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in snakehead (Channa sriata) fingerlings. Aquacult 426-427:14–20

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Robaina L, Real F, Sweetman J, Tort L, Izquierdo MS (2007) Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23(5):969–981

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Gines R, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M (2011) Improved feed utilization, intestinal musus production and immune parameters in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharide (MOS). Aquacult Nutr 17(2):223–233

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Welker TL, Lim C, Yildirim-Aksoy M, Shelby R, Klesius PH (2007) Immune response and resistance to stress and Edwardsiella ictaluri challenge in channel catfish, Ictalurus puncatus, fed diets containing commercial whole-cell yeast or yeast subcomponents. J World Aquacult Soc 38(1):24–35

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Yilmaz E, Genc MA, Genc E (2007) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides on growth, body composition, and intestine and liver histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Isr J Aquacult Bamid 59(3):182–188

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhou XQ, Li YL (2004) The effects of Bio-MOS on intestinal microflora and immune function of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian).In: Nutritional biotechnology in the feed and food industries: Proceedings of Alltech’s 20th annual symposium (Suppl. 1-Abstracts of posters presented). May 24-26, Lexington, KY, p 109

Download references


This study was financially supported by the Organization for Women in Science in the Developing World (OWSDW), Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS), the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia (Project No.: 203 PBIOLOGI.6730134) and the Postgraduate Research Grant Scheme in USM (PRGS) for funding this research.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mst. Nahid Akter.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

Author A. Mst. Nahid Akter has received a grant from the Organization for Women in Science in the Developing World (OWSDW) as research fellow and a research grant from the Postgraduate Research Grant Scheme (PRGS) in USM ; author B. Roshada Hashim received a grant from the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia, and the Exploratory Research Grant Scheme (ERGS) as mentor.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Akter, M.N., Hashim, R., Sutriana, A. et al. Influence of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on haematological and immunological responses and disease resistance of striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Sauvage, 1878) juveniles. Aquacult Int 27, 1535–1551 (2019).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI:


  • Immune response
  • Haematological parameters
  • Mannan oligosaccharide
  • P. hypophthalmus
  • A. hydrophila