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The effects of a conventional feed versus a fish-free feed and biofloc management on the nutritional and human sensory characteristics of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei)

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Abstract

Biofloc-based systems use little water and may recycle nutrients through the water column microbial community; fish-free diets may be more ecologically and financially sustainable than traditional feeds. A 12-week study examined the effects of biofloc (solids) management and a fish-free diet on shrimp quality. Four treatments were created; two used a conventional feed (including fishmeal and fish oil), one with solids management (CF-S) and one without (CF), and two treatments used a fish-free feed, one with solids management (FF-S) and one without (FF); each treatment was randomly assigned to four 3600-L tanks. The FF and FF-S shrimp had significantly lower lipid concentration and more manganese. Potassium was higher in CF-S shrimp versus CF; phosphorus was lowest in FF-S shrimp, and FF shrimp had the highest zinc levels. The CF shrimp had significantly higher omega-3s than FF shrimp, although omega-3 levels in FF shrimp were higher than the feed. This, coupled with higher omega-3 levels in the biofloc than the feed, may indicate that shrimp obtained some fatty acids from the biofloc material. The CF-S and FF-S shrimp had significantly greater sweet aromatic aroma, and the FF and FF-S shrimp had significantly higher first bite moisture release, mastication moisture release, and mastication fibrous/stringy texture. These results should be considered to optimize product quality of biofloc-raised shrimp fed fish-free diets.

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Abbreviations

AA:

Arachidonic acid

AHA:

American Heart Association

ALA:

Alpha linolenic acid

ANOVA:

analysis of variance

APHA :

American Public Health Association

CF:

Conventional feed

CF-S:

Conventional feed with solids management

DHA:

Docosahexaenoic acid

DNA:

Deoxyribonucleic acid

DO:

Dissolved oxygen

DPAn-3:

Docosapentaenoic acid n-3

EPA:

Eicosapentaenoic acid

ESS:

Environmental Sciences Section, Wisconsin State Lab of Hygiene

FA:

Fatty acid

FF:

Fish-free feed

FCR:

Feed conversion ratio

FF-S:

Fish-free feed with solids management

LA:

Linoleic acid

LnA:

Linolenic acid

n-3:

Omega-3

n-6:

Omega-6

NCSU:

North Carolina State University

NTU:

Nephelometric turbidity units

ppm:

Parts per million

PVC:

Polyvinyl chloride

RPM:

Revolutions per minute

SAS:

Statistical Analysis Software

SEM:

Standard error of the mean

TAN:

Total ammonia nitrogen

TSS:

Total suspended solids

USDA:

United States Department of Agriculture

VSS:

Volatile suspended solids

YSI:

Yellow Springs Incorporated

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Acknowledgements

Mention of a trademark or proprietary product is in no way an endorsement of that product or a suggestion of its superiority over other products. This is contribution number 784 from the South Carolina Department of Natural Resources Marine Resources Research Institute. Thank you to Maggie Holbrook Broadwater, MaryAnne Drake, Kathy Moore, Gloria Seaborn, and the staff of the Waddell Mariculture Center, Bluffton, South Carolina, USA.

Funding

This research was supported by grants from the USDA Integrated Organic Program and the US Marine Shrimp Farming Program.

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Correspondence to Andrew J. Ray.

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All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed by the authors.

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Ray, A.J., Leffler, J.W. & Browdy, C.L. The effects of a conventional feed versus a fish-free feed and biofloc management on the nutritional and human sensory characteristics of shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquacult Int 27, 261–277 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-018-0321-8

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