Aquaculture International

, Volume 26, Issue 4, pp 981–999 | Cite as

Inorganic nitrogen control, growth, and immunophysiological response of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) in a biofloc system and in clear water with or without commercial probiotic

  • Gang Liu
  • Zhangying Ye
  • Dezhao Liu
  • Songming Zhu


A 5-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of biofloc in situ and commercial probiotic supplementation on white shrimp (1.87 ± 0.03 g) inorganic nitrogen control, growth, and immunophysiological response. For this purpose, four treatments were conducted: clear water with no probiotic application (CW), clear water with probiotic application (CW+P), biofloc with no probiotic application (FLOC), and biofloc with probiotic application (BFT+P); each group had three replicates. Growth parameters (final body weight, daily weight gain, specific growth rate) were significantly higher in the two biofloc systems (P < 0.05), and the FLOC and FLOC+P group did not have a significant difference (P > 0.05). The immune responses (total hemocyte count, complement component protein, and lysozyme) and antioxidant status (glutathione, catalase) in the CW+P, FLOC, and FLOC+P groups were increased significantly at the end of the experiment compared with the CW group (P < 0.05), and the FLOC and FLOC+P groups did not have a significant difference (P > 0.05). Results of a 10-day Vibrio harveyi challenge test show that the survival rates in CW+P, FLOC, and FLOC+P groups were significantly higher (P < 0.05), and the FLOC and FLOC+P groups did not have a significant difference (P > 0.05). These results suggest that probiotic addition in the biofloc system had little advantage, but probiotics can improve the immune status of the shrimp in the clear water system. Further, cost-effectiveness analysis showed that the biofloc system was an efficient and economical option for the production of white shrimp.


Biofloc Probiotic Bacillus Litopenaeus vannamei Growth Immune and antioxidant status 



This work was supported by the Key Program of Science and Technology of Zhejiang Province (Grant No. 2015C02010) and the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2014BAD08B09).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gang Liu
    • 1
  • Zhangying Ye
    • 1
  • Dezhao Liu
    • 1
  • Songming Zhu
    • 1
  1. 1.College of Bio-systems Engineering and Food ScienceZhejiang UniversityHangzhouPeople’s Republic of China

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