Immunogene expression in head kidney and spleen of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) following thermal stress and challenge with Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila
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To evaluate the effect of thermal and microbial stress on the immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.), relative mRNA expression level of pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL)-1β] and other genes related to immune or stress response [inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70), superoxide dismutase one (SOD1), and glucocorticoid receptor (GR)] was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR). In addition, total protein and total immunoglobulin level in blood plasma of experimental common carp was also assayed. All the above parameters were estimated 24 h post-challenge with Gram-negative bacterium, Aeromonas hydrophila. Common carp (54.89 ± 6.90 g) were initially exposed to 20 °C (control group) and 30 °C (thermal stress group) water temperature for 30 days, followed by experimental challenge with 2.29 × 108 colony forming unit/mL (CFU/mL; LD50 dose) of A. hydrophila. Exposure of fish to thermal stress and subsequently challenge with A. hydrophila significantly (P < 0.05) increases the IL-1β mRNA expression in head kidney and spleen of common carp by ~ 39.94 and ~ 4.11-fold, respectively. However, TNF-α mRNA expression in spleen decreased ~ 5.63-fold in control fish challenged with A. hydrophila. Thermal stress and challenge with bacterium suppresses the iNOS and GR mRNA expression in spleen of common carp. Moreover, significant (P < 0.05) increase in total protein content of blood plasma (~ 43 mg/g) was evident in fish exposed to thermal stress and challenged with A. hydrophila. In conclusion, our study highlights the importance of elevated temperature stress and microbial infection in differential regulation of expression of several immunogenes in common carp.
KeywordsCommon carp Thermal stress Quantitative PCR Cytokines Aeromonas hydrophila
We gratefully acknowledge the help of Benkõ Lászlóné, Holp Józsefné, and Bogár Katalin of HAKI for their technical assistance and fish husbandry during our work.
During this work at the National Agricultural Research and Innovation Centre, Research Institute for Fisheries and Aquaculture (NARIC, HAKI), Szarvas, Hungary, the first author (Neetu Shahi) was supported by research stay grant from Tempus Public Foundation (TPF), Hungary. This research did not receive and specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not for profit sectors.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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