Assessment of household risk management strategies for coastal aquaculture: the case of clam farming in Thaibinh Province, Vietnam


Clam farmers have experienced different types of risks that have been further exacerbated by the rapid expansion of clam farming areas, increased growing densities, and increased market difficulties in recent years in the Thaibinh Province of Vietnam. Most farmers have been seriously affected by production risk, market risk, and financial risk, while a number of others have met with success in almost all of their clam-raising cycles. This study applied a differentiating comparative analysis method and multiple discriminant analysis method to discuss the differences in risk management strategies between and among clam farming households and the impacts of those differences on their success/failure rates. In general, the tactics are related to increase in farm size, the application of technical innovations, diversifying livelihood activities, and accessing secure financial sources all provided better conditions for clam growth, diminished losses, and led to speedier recovery from shocks. To support farmers in managing risks, several government interventions are needed: (1) better re-zoning of clam farming areas in parallel with an increase in the farm size of each household, (2) promoting sustainable linkages between the farmers and the formal financial market and output market, and (3) investing more funding into research and extension related to sustainable clam farming practices and to the improvement of farmers’ skills in cooperative works and management.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4


  1. Baez JE, & Mason A (2008) Dealing with climate change: household risk management and adaptation in Latin America

  2. Barrett CB, Reardon T, Webb P (2001) Nonfarm income diversification and household livelihood strategies in rural Africa: concepts, dynamics, and policy implications. Food Policy 26(4):315–331.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Bondad-Reantaso MG, Arthur JR, & Subasinghe RP (2008) Understanding and applying risk analysis in aquaculture: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

  4. Brown CE (1998) Multiple Discriminant Analysis. In Applied Multivariate Statistics in Geohydrology and Related Sciences (pp. 115–128): Springer

  5. Bui AT, Dungey M, Nguyen CV, Pham TP (2014) The impact of natural disasters on household income, expenditure, poverty and inequality: evidence from Vietnam. Appl Econ 46(15):1751–1766.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Cardona OD (2004) The need for rethinking the concepts of vulnerability and risk from a holistic perspective: a necessary review and criticism for effective risk management. Mapping vulnerability: Disasters, development and. people 17

  7. Chi TTN, Yamada R (2002) Factors affecting farmers’ adoption of technologies in farming system: a case study in Omon district, Can Tho province, Mekong Delta. Omonrice 10:94–100

    Google Scholar 

  8. De Silva SS, Soto D (2009) Climate change and aquaculture: potential impacts, adaptation and mitigation. Climate change implications for fisheries and aquaculture: overview of current scientific knowledge. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper 530:151–212

    Google Scholar 

  9. Duc NM (2009) Economic contribution of fish culture to farm income in Southeast Vietnam. Aquac Int 17(1):15–29.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. EC (2001) Risk management tools for EU agriculture with a special focus on insurance. Retrieved from AGRICULTURE DIRECTORATE-GENERAL; EUROPEAN COMMISSION:

  11. Engle CR (2010) Risk analysis in production aquaculute research. In: Aquaculture economics and financing: management and analysis. Wiley-Blackwell, Ames, pp 197–206.

    Google Scholar 

  12. Fischer I, Buchenrieder G (2010) Risk management of vulnerable rural households in southeast Asia. In: Paper presented at the 9th European IFSA Symposium. Austria, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  13. (2017) Vietnam Physical Map. Retrieved from

  14. Garschagen M, Hagenlocher M, Kloos J, Pardoe J, Lanzendörfer M, Mucke P,. .. Birkmann J (2016) World Risk Report 2015. Retrieved from Bündnis Entwicklung Hilft (Alliance Development Works) and United Nations University – Institute for Environment and Human Security (UNU-EHS):

  15. Geographical Database (2016) From Center of Survey and Mapping Vietnam

  16. Ha NTT, Nga NV, Phuong NT, & Thuc NV (2015) Bao cao tong quan ve cac nghien cuu giam ngheo o Vietnam (Review study about research for poverty eliminating in Vietnam). Retrieved from MOLISA (Vietnam) & UNDP:

  17. Handisyde NT, Ross LG, Badjeck M-C, & Allison EH (2006) The Effects Of climate change on world aquaculture: a global perspective. Retrieved from department for international development (DFID):

  18. Hanson J, Dismukes R, Chambers W, Greene C, Kremen A (2004) Risk and risk management in organic agriculture: views of organic farmers. Renew Agric Food Syst 19(4):218–227.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Harwood JL, Heifner R, Coble K, Perry J, & Somwaru A (1999) Managing risk in farming: concepts, research, and analysis: US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

  20. Hay A (2016) The wealth report 2015. Retrieved from Knight Frank Research:

  21. Hoang T, Chu NMN (2008) Analysis data for research with SPSS, vol 2. Hong Ngoc Publisher, University of Economic Hochiminh City

    Google Scholar 

  22. Hurri S, Nguyen NQ (2015) Rural finance of coffee smallholders in Vietnam- case study in DakNong Province. In: Retrieved from International Fund for Agricultural Development (IFAD). Vietnam, Hanoi

    Google Scholar 

  23. Keil A, Zeller M, Wida A, Sanim B, Birner R (2008) What determines farmers’ resilience towards ENSO-related drought? An empirical assessment in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Clim Chang 86(3–4):291–307.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Kien NT (2016) Agricultural commodity markets in 2015 and outlook for 2016. In: Paper presented at the Vietnam Agricultural Outlook Conference 2016. Hanoi, Vietnam

    Google Scholar 

  25. Le TC, Cheong F (2010) Perceptions of risk and risk management in Vietnamese catfish farming: an empirical study. Aquac Econ Manag 14(4):282–314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. MARD (2014) Bao cao tinh hinh nuoi ngao tai cac tinh ven bien mien Bac Vietnam (Report about clam production in the provinces of North coastal Vienam). Department of Processing and Trading Agricultural Forestry Aquatic Products and Salt, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development, Hanoi, Vietnam

    Google Scholar 

  27. McIntosh D (2008) Aquaculture Risk Management. NRAC Publication No:107–2008

  28. Minot N, & Hill RV (2007) Developing and connecting markets for poor farmers. Paper presented at the 2020 FOCUS BRIEF on the World’s Poor and Hungry People

  29. Musser WN, & Patrick GF (2002) How much does risk really matter to farmers? In R. E.Just & R. D.Pope (Eds.), A comprehensive assessment of the role of risk in US agriculture (pp. 537-556): Springer US

  30. Ngo TTH, Tran HC, Azadi H, & Lebailly P (2015) Clam farming risks in Thaibinh province, Vietnam: impacts and causes. Paper presented at the Workshop “Vulnerable Coastal Areas”, Royal Academy for Overseas Sciences (RAOS) – Belgium

  31. Ngo TTH, Tran HC, Azadi H, & Lebailly P (2016) Aquaculture land-use policy: the case of clam farming in Thaibinh Province, Vietnam. Sustainability, 8, 1251(special issue), 12. Doi:

  32. Pickvance CG (2001) Four varieties of comparative analysis. J Housing Built Environ 16(1):7–28.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Rahman S, Barmon BK, Ahmed N (2011) Diversification economies and efficiencies in a ‘blue-green revolution’ combination: a case study of prawn-carp-rice farming in the ‘gher’ system in Bangladesh. Aquac Int 19(4):665–682.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  34. Stevenson JR, Irz X, Lazard J, Lésel R (2009) Is aquaculture development an effective tool for poverty alleviation? A review of theory and evidence. Cahiers Agricultures 18(2/3):292–299

    Google Scholar 

  35. Thaibinh Statistical Office (2015) Provincial Social Economic Database

  36. ThaibinhDARD (2014) Preliminary Summary Report after two years carrying out “2011–2015 planning proposal” (Bao cao so ket 2 nam thuc hien de an nuoi ngao). Thaibinh Department of Agriculture and Rural Development, Thaibinh province, Vietnam

  37. ThaibinhGOV (2012) Decision 11/2012/QD-UBND Thaibinh-13/7/2012: Quy che quan ly vung nuoi ngao tren dien tich bai trieu “Regulation for management clam farming unit in intertidal area”

  38. ThaibinhSO TSO (2017) Thabinh Statistical Yearbook 2016: statistical publishing house

  39. Thuyết BĐ, & Dũng TV (2013) Status of hard clam farming in some coastal provinces of North and Northern central Vietnam. J Sci Dev, 11

  40. Wainwright F, & Newman C (2011) Income shocks and household risk-coping strategies: evidence from rural Vietnam. Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion paper(358)

  41. WorldBank (2014) Risk and opportunity: managing risk for development. Retrieved from Publishing and Knowledge Division, The World Bank:

  42. Yang W (2010) Income uncertainty, risk coping mechanism and farmer production & management decision: an empirical study from Sichuan Province. Agric Agric Sci Procedia 1:230–240.

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Thi Thu Hang Ngo.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ngo, T.T.H., Azadi, H., Tran, H.C. et al. Assessment of household risk management strategies for coastal aquaculture: the case of clam farming in Thaibinh Province, Vietnam. Aquacult Int 26, 451–468 (2018).

Download citation


  • Aquaculture
  • Clam farmers
  • Risk management
  • Vietnam