Aquaculture International

, Volume 25, Issue 5, pp 1787–1797 | Cite as

Diet supplemented with Grifola gargal mushroom enhances growth, lipid content, and nutrient retention of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

  • Mariano M. Pascual
  • Juan P. Hualde
  • Virginia A. Bianchi
  • Juan M. Castro
  • Carlos M. Luquet


This study examined the suitability of the edible mushroom Grifola gargal as a dietary supplement for juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three treatments were established in triplicate using 50 fish (0.33 ± 0.01 g) held in 50-L containers. Treatments consisted of feeds (42–45% protein, ca. 18% lipid) supplemented with fruiting-bodies of G. gargal at 0 g kg−1 (control diet (CTRL)), 25 g kg−1 (GG25), or 100 g kg−1 (GG100). Fish were hand-fed to apparent satiation twice a day (except on Sundays) for 56 days. Feed intake and growth were recorded throughout the study, and fish body proximate composition and nutrient retention were assessed at the end of the trial. Fish given GG25 diet had better growth and feed utilization than those given the other feeds. Final body weight was 2.37 ± 0.04 g (CTRL), 4.07 ± 0.07 g (GG25), and 1.94 ± 0.06 g (GG100) and the thermal-unit growth coefficient increased significantly from 0.64 ± 0.01 in CTRL to 0.87 ± 0.01 in GG25. The feed efficiency and the protein efficiency ratio were best for fish fed GG25, and body lipid was 42.3 ± 2.6 g kg−1 in CTRL and 75.3 ± 1.5 g kg−1 in GG25 treatments. This coincided with a lower viscerosomatic index in the fish given GG25 than in those provided with the other feeds. These results suggest that dietary supplementation with G. gargal at 25 g kg−1 enhances growth and leads to improved feed utilization in small rainbow trout.


Edible mushrooms Feed ingredients Fungi Nutrition Salmonids 



This study was supported by the grants CONICET PIP 11220130100529 and ANPCYT PICT 2013-1415 to CML. We also acknowledge funding by Ministerio de Seguridad, Trabajo y Ambiente de la Provincia de Neuquén. The authors wish to thank Sofia Mc Cabe, Julián Simon and Jorge Biorkman for their contributions to this work. We acknowledge two anonymous reviewers for their constructive suggestions.

Compliance with ethical standards

The experimental protocols were approved by the Bioethics Committee, School of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences, National University of Rosario, Argentina (6060/116).


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mariano M. Pascual
    • 1
  • Juan P. Hualde
    • 2
  • Virginia A. Bianchi
    • 3
  • Juan M. Castro
    • 1
  • Carlos M. Luquet
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratorio de Ecotoxicología Acuática, INIBIOMA (CONICET-UNCo)CEANNeuquénArgentina
  2. 2.Laboratorio de Nutrición de PecesCEANNeuquénArgentina
  3. 3.Centro de Investigaciones en Toxicología Ambiental y Agrobiotecnología del COMAHUE (CITAAC)CONICET–Universidad Nacional del ComahueNeuquénArgentina

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