Aquaculture International

, Volume 24, Issue 4, pp 1049–1060 | Cite as

Corn gluten meal in pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus diets: effects on growth, haematology, and meat quality

  • Hamilton Hisano
  • José Luiz Pilecco
  • Jorge Antônio Ferreira de Lara


Corn gluten meal (CGM) has a high protein content and absence of antinutrients. However, it has high levels of carotenoids that can cause a yellowing of fish fillets and impair further commercialisation. Graded levels of CGM were incorporated in pacu diets to replace soybean meal (SM) protein. The experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous (220 g kg−1 digestible protein) and isoenergetic (13.4 MJ kg−1 digestible energy) with 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 % replacement of SM protein by CGM protein over a 60-day period. One hundred fish (32.79 ± 3.43 g) were randomly distributed in 20 experimental cages (70 L) placed within five (1000 L) aquaria with continuous water renewal. The experimental design was completely randomised with five treatments and four replicates. A quadratic effect (P < 0.05) was observed for fillet and carcass yields, feed conversion ratio, weight gain, and specific growth rate, with the optimum values for replacement of SM protein by CGM protein estimated as 21.95, 29.13, 30.94, 37.71, and 38.75 %, respectively. There were no differences (P > 0.05) for blood parameters, proximal composition, water-holding capacity, pH, lipid oxidation, and a* value of fillets. The L* and b* values of fillets showed differences (P < 0.05). Replacement between 21.95 and 38.75 % of SM protein by CGM protein (5.37 and 9.48 % of inclusion in the diet) improves the growth performance and body yield of pacu juveniles without altering blood parameters or affecting the fillet quality.


Colouration Feed formulation Fillet characteristics Plant protein sources 



This study was financially supported by Ministério da Pesca e Aquicultura - MPA and Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq (406453/2012-8). We also thank Jovana Silva Garbelini Zuanazzi, Pamela Souza de Pietro, and Juliana Simeão dos Santos for their assistance during the experiment.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hamilton Hisano
    • 1
  • José Luiz Pilecco
    • 2
  • Jorge Antônio Ferreira de Lara
    • 3
  1. 1.Embrapa Meio AmbienteJaguariúnaBrazil
  2. 2.Programa de Pós-Graduação em ZootecniaUniversidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do SulAquidauanaBrazil
  3. 3.Embrapa PantanalCorumbáBrazil

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