Advertisement

Aquaculture International

, Volume 25, Issue 2, pp 837–848 | Cite as

Effect of dietary fructooligosaccharide supplementation on growth, body composition, hematological and immunological parameters of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer)

  • Sajjad Syed Raffic Ali
  • Kondusamy AmbasankarEmail author
  • Peter Ezhil Praveena
  • Sambasivam Nandakumar
  • Jagabatula Syamadayal
Article

Abstract

A feeding trial to study the effect of addition of prebiotic fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on feeds for juvenile Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) (12.2 ± 0.4 g) was carried out. Five isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental diets were formulated that contained 400 g kg−1 protein and 90 g kg−1 lipid. The FOS was supplemented at 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 g kg−1 in the diet of L. calcarifer with a control that was devoid of FOS. The trial was carried out in 1000-L fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) tanks with three replicates (each containing 20 fish) for each treatment. After 45 days of feeding, it was observed that FOS supplementation at 10 g kg−1 in the diet resulted in significantly (P < 0.05) higher final biomass (334.2 ± 7.3 g) and survival (97.7 ± 3.8 %). There were no significant (P > 0.05) differences in biological indices of fish fed with the experimental and control diets. Whole body chemical composition of animals post-feeding revealed significantly (P < 0.05) higher crude protein, crude lipid and total ash content in 5 g kg−1 FOS-supplemented diet. The analysis of hematological parameters revealed that red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration levels increased significantly (P < 0.05) with dietary FOS supplementation up to 5 g kg−1.The second-degree polynomial regression analysis of RBC (4.06 ± 0.05 × 106 mm−3) showed that FOS 5 g kg−1 is an optimal level in seabass diet. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher lysozyme (77.4 ± 0.5 U mL−1) and superoxide dismutase (75.2 ± 0.3 U mL−1) activity was recorded at 10 g kg−1 FOS supplementation. It could therefore be concluded that 10 g kg−1 FOS supplementation has a beneficial effect in improving the survival rate and immunological parameters in L. calcarifer juveniles.

Keywords

Barramundi Biological indices Feed additive Prebiotics Survival 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Indian Council of Agricultural Research, New Delhi, for the project on Outreach Activity on Fish feeds. Authors express their sincere thanks to Dr. A.G. Ponniah, Former Director, and Dr. K.K. Vijayan, Director, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, for providing necessary facilities for carrying out this work. We are thankful to Dr. G. Gopikrishna, Head, Nutrition Genetics and Biotechnology Division of CIBA, for his help in preparation of this manuscript.

References

  1. Akrami R, Iri Y, Rostami HK, Mansour MR (2013) Effect of dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) on growth performance, survival, lactobacillus bacterial population and hemato-immunological parameters of stellate sturgeon (Acipenser stellatus) juvenile. Fish Shellfish Immunol 35:1235–1239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Anh PT, Kroeze C, Bush SR, Mol APJ (2010) Water pollution by Pangasius production in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: causes and options for control. Aquac Res 42:108–128CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. AOAC (2012) Official methods of analysis, 19th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, ArlingtonGoogle Scholar
  4. APHA/AWWA/WPCF (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, 20th edn. American Public Health Association, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Blaxhall PC, Daisley KW (1973) Routine hematological methods for use with fish blood. J Fish Biol 5:771–781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Spring P, Sweetman J, Moate R, Davies SJ (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance feed utilization, intestinal histology and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 300:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ellis AE (1990) Lysozyme assay. In: Stolen JS, Fletcher TC, Anderson DP, Roberson BS, Muiswinkel WB (eds) Technique in fish immunology. SOS Publication, Fair Haven, pp 101–103Google Scholar
  8. England JM, Walford DM (1972) Re-assessment of the reliability of haematocrit. Br J Hematol 23:247–253CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. FAO (2014) Cultured aquatic species information programme: Lates calcarifer (Bloch, 1790). http://www.fao.org/fishery/culturedspecies/Lates_calcarifer/en
  10. Gibson G, Wang X (1994) Regulatory effect of bifidobacteria on the growth of other colonic bacteria. J Appl Microbiol 77:412–420Google Scholar
  11. Grisdale-Helland B, Helland SJ, Gatlin DMIII (2008) The effects of dietary supplementation with mannanoligosaccharide fructooligosaccharide or galactooligosaccharide on the growth and feed utilization of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture 283:163–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. He S, Xu G, Wu Y, Weng H, Xie H (2003) Effects of isomaltooligosaccharide and fructooligosaccharide on the growth performance and non-specific immunity in hybrid tilapia. Chin Feed 23:14–15 (in Chinese with English abstract) Google Scholar
  13. Hoseinifar S, Mirvaghefi A, Merrifield D, Amiri B, Yelghi S, Bastami K (2010) The study of some hematological and serum biochemical parameters of juvenile beluga (Huso huso) fed oligofructose. Fish Physiol Biochem 37:91–96CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Hoseinifar SH, Mirvaghefi A, Mojazi Amiri B, Rostami HK, Merrifield DL (2011) The effects of oligofructose on growth performance, survival and autochthonous intestinal microbiota of beluga (Huso huso) juveniles. Aquac Nutr 17:498–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jalali MA, Ahmadifar E, Sudagar M, Azari Takami GH (2009) Growth efficiency, body composition, survival and hematological changes in great sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles fed diets supplemented with different levels of Ergosan. Aquac Res 40:804–809CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li WF, Zhang XP, Song WH, Deng B, Liang Q, Fu LQ (2012) Effects of Bacillus preparations on immunity and antioxidant activities in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Fish Physiol Biochem 38:1585–1592CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Liu B, Xu L, Ge X, Xie J, Xu P, Zhou Q (2013) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide on the physiological responses, HSP70 gene expression and disease resistance of Allogynogenetic crucian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio) under Aeromonas hydrophila infection. Fish Shellfish Immunol 34:1395–1403CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Manning TS, Gibson GR (2004) Prebiotics. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 18:287–298CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Misra HP, Fridovich I (1972) The role of superoxide anion in the auto oxidation of epinephrine and a simple assay of superoxide dismutase. J Biol Chem 247:3170–3175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Nandakumar S, Ambasankar K, Syamadayal J, Raman C, Syed Raffic Ali S (2013) Fish meal replacement with chicken waste meal in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) feeds. Indian J Fish 60:109–114Google Scholar
  21. Newton JR, Smith-Keune C, Jerry DR (2010) Thermal tolerance varies in tropical and sub-tropical populations of barramundi (Lates calcarifer) consistent with local adaptation. Aquaculture 308:128–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ortiz LT, Rebole A, Velasco S, Rodriguez ML, Trevino J, Tejedor JL (2013) Effects of inulin and fructooligosaccharide on growth performance, body chemical composition and intestinal microbiota of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquac Nutr 19:475–482CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Osuigwe DI, Obiekezie AI, Onuoha GC (2005) Some hematological changes in hybrid catfish (Heterobranchus longifilis × Clarias gariepinus) fed different dietary levels of raw and boiled jackbean (Canavalia ensiformis) seed meal. Afr J Biotechnol 4:1017–1021Google Scholar
  24. Rico A, Van den Brink PJ (2014) Probabilistic risk assessment of veterinary medicines applied to four major aquaculture species produced in Asia. Sci Total Environ 469:630–641CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rico A, Satapornvanit K, Haque MM, Min J, Nguyen PT, Telfer TC, Van den Brink PJ (2012) Use of chemicals and biological products in Asian aquaculture and their potential environmental risks: a critical review. Rev Aquac 4:75–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ringo E, Olsen RE, Gifstad TO, Dalmo RA, Amhund H (2010) Prebiotics in aquaculture: a review. Aquac Nutr 16:117–136CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Safari O, Shahsavani D, Paolucci M, Atash MMS (2014) Single or combined effects of fructo- and mannan oligosaccharide supplements on the growth performance, nutrient digestibility, immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile narrow clawed crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus leptodactylus). Aquaculture 432:192–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Sapkota A, Sapkota AR, Kucharski M, Burke J, Mckenzie S, Walker P, Lawrence R (2008) Aquaculture practices and potential human health risks: current knowledge and future properties. Environ Int 34:1215–1226CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Shen WY, Fu LL, Li WF, Zhu YR (2010) Effect of dietary supplementation with Bacillus subtilis on the growth, performance, immune response and antioxidant activities of the shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). Aquac Res 41:1691–1698CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Soleimani N, Hoseinifar S, Merrifield D, Barati M, Hassan Abadi Z (2012) Dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) improves the innate immune response, stress resistance, digestive enzyme activities and growth performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry. Fish Shellfish Immunol 32:316–321CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Syed Raffic Ali S, Ambasankar K, Ezhil Praveena P, Nandakumar S, Syamadayal J (2015) Effect of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on growth, body composition, hematology and biochemical parameters of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Aquac Res. doi: 10.1111/are.12933 Google Scholar
  32. Syed Raffic Ali S, Ambasankar K, Nandakumar S, Ezhil Praveena P, Syamadayal J (2016) Effect of dietary prebiotic inulin on growth, body composition and gut microbiota of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer). Anim Feed Sci Technol 217:87–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Taati R, Soltani M, Bahmani M, Zamini AA (2011) Growth performance, carcass composition and immunophysiological indices in juvenile great sturgeon (Huso huso) fed on commercial prebiotic, Immunoster. Iran J Fish Sci 10:324–335Google Scholar
  34. Talpur AD, Munir MB, Mary A, Hashim R (2014) Dietary probiotics and prebiotics improved food acceptability, growth performance, hematology and immunological parameters and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila in snakehead (Channa striata) fingerlings. Aquaculture 427:14–20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Torrecillas S, Makoi A, Cabaliero MJ, Montero D, Robaina L, Tort L (2007) Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23:969–981CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Wu Y, Liu WB, Li HY, Xu WN, He JX, Li XF, Jiang GZ (2013) Effect of dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide on growth performance, body composition, intestinal enzymes activities and histology of blunt snout sea bream (Megalobrama amblycephala) fingerlings. Aquac Nutr 19:886–894CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Zhang Q, Ma H, Mai K, Zhang W, Liufu Z, Xu W (2010) Interaction of dietary Bacillus subtilis and fructooligosaccharide on the growth performance, non-specific immunity of sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). Fish Shellfish Immunol 29:204–211CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhang CN, Li XF, Xu WN, Jiang GZ, Lu KL, Wang LN (2013) Combined effects of dietary fructooligosaccharide and Bacillus licheniformis on innate immunity, antioxidant capability and disease resistance of triangular bream (Megalobrama terminalis). Fish Shellfish Immunol 35:1380–1386CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Zhang Q, Yu H, Tong T, Tong W, Dong L, Xu M, Wang Z (2014) Dietary supplementation of Bacillus subtilis and fructooligosaccharide enhance the growth, non-specific immunity of juvenile ovate pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) and its disease resistance against Vibrio vulnificus. Fish Shellfish Immunol 38:7–14CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhou QC, Alejandro Buentello J, Gatlin DMIII (2010) Effects of dietary prebiotics on growth performance, immune response and intestinal morphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquaculture 309:253–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sajjad Syed Raffic Ali
    • 1
  • Kondusamy Ambasankar
    • 1
    Email author
  • Peter Ezhil Praveena
    • 1
  • Sambasivam Nandakumar
    • 1
  • Jagabatula Syamadayal
    • 1
  1. 1.Nutrition Genetics and Biotechnology DivisionCentral Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture (ICAR)ChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations