Aquaculture International

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 163–175 | Cite as

Acute toxicity and anaesthetic effect of clove oil and eugenol on Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens

  • Thanapat Pattanasiri
  • Wara Taparhudee
  • Panuwat SuppakulEmail author


With brilliant colouration and long, flowing fins, the Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens) is one of the most popular species of freshwater aquarium fish. In the ornamental Siamese fighting fish business, stress is one of the major causes of fish injury, including collapse of the fins. This problem could be solved by using anaesthetic treatment. Clove oil and eugenol were investigated for acute toxicity, which was determined using an aqueous dilution method at concentrations ranging from 0 to 35 mg L−1. Based on a criterion of fish transportation within 2 days, induction times of anaesthesia, fish behavioural responses and mortality, and recovery times were monitored and recorded over a 48-h period. The 48-h LC50 of clove oil and eugenol was 30.63 [with a 95 % confidence interval (CI) of 29.23–32.10 mg L−1] and 29.95 mg L−1 (with a 95 % CI of 28.50–31.48 mg L−1), respectively. Concentrations of 10 and 15 mg L−1 clove oil over a 48-h period induced a sedative effect, resulting in partial loss of reactivity and mobility while maintaining equilibrium. At these concentrations, the fish could recover behaviourally within 3–5 min. Recovery times decreased with lower doses and shorter exposure times. The higher the concentration of either clove oil or eugenol used, the lower the concentrations of total ammonia and un-ionized ammonia that were detected. This study revealed that clove oil and eugenol are highly effective anaesthetic agents as a transportation mixture for Siamese fighting fish.


Acute toxicity Anaesthesia Clove oil Eugenol Ornamental fish Siamese fighting fish 



This research was supported by R&D Convergence Center Support Program of the Ministry for Food, Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, Republic of Korea. On behalf of Kasetsart University, author Suppakul would like to thank Dongguk University for conferring a research professorship and providing a valuable technical support.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thanapat Pattanasiri
    • 1
  • Wara Taparhudee
    • 2
    • 3
  • Panuwat Suppakul
    • 1
    • 3
    • 4
    • 5
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Packaging and Materials Technology, Faculty of Agro-IndustryKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of FisheriesKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  3. 3.Center of Advanced Studies for Agriculture and Food (CASAF)Kasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Department of Food Science and Biotechnology, College of Life Science and BiotechnologyDongguk UniversitySeoulSouth Korea
  5. 5.Center for Intelligent Agro Food Packaging, College of Life Science and BiotechnologyDongguk UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

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