Aquaculture International

, Volume 25, Issue 1, pp 121–134 | Cite as

Effects of feeding frequency and Spirulina on growth performance, skin coloration and seed production on kenyi cichlids (Maylandia lombardoi)

  • Onur Karadal
  • Derya GüroyEmail author
  • Gürel Türkmen


Kenyi cichlids belong to mbuna group which is specific to Lake Malawi. Gender discrimination is easy because males have yellow, females have blue colors and their spawning efficiency is good. Cichlid producers prefer kenyi cichlids in recent years due to reproduction performance and coloring of kenyi. In this study, effects of Spirulina-based diet and feeding frequency on coloration, seed production, growth and survival on kenyi cichlids (Maylandia lombardoi) were investigated for 112 days. The study was carried out in a recirculating system which has 100 L each tank and 12 fiberglass tanks with three replicates. Ten fish (3 months old, mean body weight 2.00 ± 0.05 g and mean total length 4.51 ± 0.42 cm) were randomly placed in each tank. Experimental groups were designed with commercial granule (C) and commercial granule Spirulina (S) feeds. In the present study, two feeding frequencies were applied: one feeding daily at 09:00 (namely C1, S1) and three times daily at 09:00, 12:00 and 17:00 (namely C3, S3). The growth and seed production of cichlid fed three times daily were significantly higher compared to fish fed one feeding daily, irrespective of feed source (P < 0.05). Moreover, the specific growth rate of cichlid fed Spirulina-based diet was significantly elevated compared to fish fed non-Spirulina-based diet. The Spirulina-based diets affected skin coloration giving a bluish hue and a typical chroma values for the females of kenyi cichlid. In conclusion, growth performance, seed production and skin coloration of kenyi cichlid fed Spirulina diets three times daily enhanced under the study condition.


Cichlidae Pigmentation Feeding frequency Microalgae Water quality 



Some data of this study have been presented in 1st National Aquarium Fisheries and Issues Workshop, Antalya, Turkey, as an oral presentation on October 30–31, 2014. As the authors, we would like to thank Serhan Mantoğlu, M.Sc. for analyzing chemical components of feeds and Mevlüt Yalçın, Muhammet Balcı and Olkan Şentürk for their technical assistance.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Aquaculture, Armutlu Vocational SchoolYalova UniversityArmutluTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of FisheriesEge UniversityBornovaTurkey

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