Skip to main content
Log in

Dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide influences growth, digestive enzymes, gut morphology, and microbiota in juvenile striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  • Published:
Aquaculture International Aims and scope Submit manuscript


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) dietary supplementation on growth, digestive enzyme activities, gut morphology, and microbiota in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). Triplicate groups of juvenile striped catfish (initial weight 20.41 ± 1.64 g) were fed twice per day at 2.5 % of body weight for 12 weeks, with 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 % MOS diets. Compared to control (0.74 ± 0.03) and fish fed low MOS concentration, those fed 0.6 % (1.01 ± 0.02) or 0.8 % (1.03 ± 0.03) MOS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) specific growth rates. Feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, respectively, significantly improved (P < 0.05) in fish fed 0.6 % (1.62 ± 0.23; 1.71 ± 0.23) or 0.8 % (1.42 ± 0.06; 1.92 ± 0.08) MOS. Further, compared to control and fish fed 0.2 % MOS, those fed 0.6 % MOS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) apparent protein and dry matter digestibilities. Amylase, protease, and lipase activities, respectively, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fish fed 0.6 % MOS (5.10 ± 0.97; 0.47 ± 0.08; and 5.59 ± 1.82) than in control (2.60 ± 0.53; 0.32 ± 0.05; and 3.78 ± 0.72). Histological analysis of the anterior and posterior gut showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) villus length in 0.6 and 0.8 % MOS fed fish than in the control and other treatments. The guts of fish fed different MOS concentrations showed similar total lactic acid bacteria counts, which were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the control. Thus, 0.6 % MOS-supplemented diet improved growth, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities, gut morphology, and microbiota in juvenile striped catfish.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others



Mannan oligosaccharide


Carboxymethyl cellulose


Nitrogen-free extract


Gross energy


Hepatosomatic index


Intraperitoneal fat


Viscerosomatic index


Specific growth rate


Food conversion ratio


Protein efficiency ratio


Association of official analytical chemists


Polyvinyl alcohol


Transmission electron microscope


Lactic acid bacteria


Total bacteria


Apparent protein digestibility


Apparent dry matter digestibility


Colony-forming unit


De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe


Tryptic soy agar


  • Anguiano M, Pholenz C, Buentello A, Gatlin DM III (2013) The effects of prebiotics on the digestive enzymes and gut histomorphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis). Br J Nutr 109:623–629

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • AOAC (1997) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 16th edn, vol. 1, Arlington, VA, USA, pp 1–3

  • Aziza AE, Awadin WF, Quezada N, Cherian G (2014) Gastrointestinal morphology, fatty acid profile, and production performance of broiler chickens fed camelina meal or fish oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 116:1727–1733

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bier M (1955) Lipases: RCOOR′ + H2O → RCOOH + R′OH. Methods Enzymol 1:627–642

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Burr G, Gatlin D III, Ricke S (2005) Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract of fish and the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics in finfish aquaculture. J World Aquacult Soc 36:425–436

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Chong ASC, Hashim R, Chow-Yang L, Ali AB (2002) Partial characterization and activities of proteases from the digestive tract of discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciata). Aquaculture 203:321–333

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Daniels CL, Merrifield DL, Boothroyd DP, Davies SJ, Factor JR, Arnold KE (2010) Effect of dietary Bacillus spp. and mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on European lobster (Homarus gammarus L) larvae growth performance, gut morphology and gut microbiota. Aquaculture 304:49–57

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • De Silva SS, Phuong NT (2011) Striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: a tumultuous path to a global success. Rev Aquacult 3:45–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Moate R, Davies SJ, Spring P, Sweetman J, Bradley G (2009) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide supplementation modulates intestinal microbial ecology and improves gut morphology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Anim Sci 87:3226–3234

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Spring P, Sweetman J, Moate R, Davies SJ (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal histology and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 300:182–188

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Dimitroglou A, Reynolds P, Ravnoy B, Johnsen F, Sweetman JW, Johansen J, Davies SJ (2011) The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with high levels of plant proteins. J Aquacult Res Dev S1:011. doi:10.4172/2155-9546.S1-011

  • Duncan DB (1955) Multiple range and multiple (F) tests. Biometrics 11:1–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Furukawa A, Tsukahara H (1966) On the acid digestion method for the determination of chromium oxide as an index substance in the study of digestibility of fish feed. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 32:502–506

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gatlin DM III (2002) Nutrition and fish health. In: Halver JE, Hardy RW (eds) Fish nutrition, 3rd edn. Elsevier Science, San Diego, pp 671–702

    Google Scholar 

  • Genc MA, Aktas M, Genc E, Yilmaz E (2007a) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on growth, body composition and hepatopancreas histology of Penaeus semisulcatus (de Haan 1844). Aquacult Nutr 13:156–161

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Genc MA, Yilmaz E, Genc E, Aktas M (2007b) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on growth, body composition, and intestine and liver histology of the hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus). Isr J Aquacult Bamigdeh 59:10–16

    Google Scholar 

  • Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401–1412

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Grisdale-Helland B, Helland SJ, Gatlin DM III (2008) The effects of dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide, fructooligosaccharide or galactooligosaccharide on the growth and feed utilization of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquacult 283:163–167

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Gültepe N, Salnur S, Hossu B, Hisar O (2011) Dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) from Bio-Mos enhances growth parameters and digestive capacity of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquacult Nutr 17:482–487

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Güroy B, Sahin I, Kayali S, Mantoǧlu S, Canan B, Merrifield DL, Davies SJ, Güroy D (2013) Evaluation of feed utilization and growth performance of juvenile striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fed diets with varying inclusion levels of corn gluten meal. Aquacult Nutr 19:258–266

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krogdahl Å, Sundby A, Olli JJ (2004) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digest and metabolize nutrients differently. Effects of water salinity and dietary starch level. Aquaculture 229:335–360

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Lewis PR, Knight DP (1977) Staining methods for sectioned material. In: Glauert AM (ed) Practical methods in electron microscopy, vol 5., Elsevier/NorthHolland Biomedical pressAmsterdam, Netherlands, pp 43–44

    Google Scholar 

  • Manning TS, Gibson GR (2004) Prebiotics. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 18:287–298

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Mazlum Y, Yilmaz E, Genc MA, Guner O (2011) A preliminary study on the use of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) in freshwater crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823 juvenile diets. Aquacult Int 19:111–119

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Merrifield D, Zhou Z (2011) Probiotic and prebiotic applications inaquaculture. J Aquacult Res Dev S 1:e001. doi:10.4172/2155-9546.S1-e001

    Google Scholar 

  • Natalia Y, Hashim R, Ali A, Chong A (2004) Characterization of digestive enzymes in a carnivorous ornamental fish, the Asian bony tongue Scleropages formosus (Osteoglossidae). Aquacult 233:305–320

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Pryor GS, Royes JB, Chapman FA, Miles RD (2003) Mannan oligosaccharides in fish nutrition: Effects of dietary supplementation on growth and gastrointestinal villi structure in Gulf of Mexico sturgeon. N Am J Aquacult 65:106–111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Robaina L, Izquierdo MS, Moyano FJ, Socorro J, Vergara JM, Montero D, Fernández-Palacios H (1995) Soybean and lupin seed meals as protein sources in diets for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata): nutritional and histological implications. Aquaculture 130:219–233

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rodriguez-Estrada U, Satoh S, Haga Y, Fushimi H, Sweetman J (2013) Effects of inactivated Enterococcus faecalis and mannan oligosaccharide and their combination on growth, immunity, and disease protection in rainbow trout. N Am J Aquacult 75:416–428

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Salaghi Z, Imanpuor M, Taghizadeh V (2013) Effect of different levels of probiotic primalac on growth performance and survival rate of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). Glob Vet 11:238–242

    Google Scholar 

  • Salze G, McLean E, Schwarz MH, Craig SR (2008) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide enhances salinity tolerance and gut development of larval cobia. Aquaculture 274:148–152

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sang HM, Fotedar R (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide dietary supplementation on performances of the tropical spiny lobsters juvenile (Panulirus ornatus, Fabricius 1798). Fish Shellfish Immunol 28:483–489

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Sang HM, Fotedar R, Filler K (2011) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on the survival, growth, immunity and digestive enzyme activity of freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor Clark (1936). Aquacult Nutr 17:629–635

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shan X, Xiao Z, Huang W, Dou S (2008) Effects of photoperiod on growth, mortality and digestive enzymes in miiuy croaker larvae and juveniles. Aquaculture 281:70–76

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Singh AK, Lakra WS (2012) Culture of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus into India: impacts and present scenario. Pak J Biol Sci 15:19–26

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Soleimani N, Hoseinifar SH, Merrifield DL, Barati M, Abadi ZH (2012) Dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) improves the innate immune response, stress resistance, digestive enzyme activities and growth performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry. Fish Shellfish Immunol 32:316–321

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Spring P, Privulescu M (1998) Mannan oligosaccharide: its logical role as natural feed additive for piglets. In: Lyons TP, Jacques KA (eds) Biotechnology in the feed industry. Proceedings of Alltech’s 14th annual symposium, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp 553–561

  • Staykov Y, Spring P, Denev S, Sweetman J (2007) Effect of a mannan oligosaccharide on the growth performance and immune status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquacult Int 15:153–161

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Robaina L, Real F, Sweetman J, Tort L, Izquierdo MS (2007) Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharide. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23:969–981

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Gines R, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M (2011) Improved feed utilization, intestinal mucus production and immune parameters in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS). Aquacult Nutr 17:223–233

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Walter HE (1984) Proteinases: methods with hemoglobin, casein and azocoll as substrates. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis, vol 5. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 270–277

    Google Scholar 

  • Wang YB (2007) Effect of probiotics on growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 269:259–264

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Worthington CC (ed) (1988) Worthington enzyme manual: alpha amylase. In: Enzymes, and related biochemicals. Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Freehold, New Jersey, USA, pp 38–42

  • Wu ZX, Yu YM, Chen X, Liu H, Yuan JF, Shi Y, Chen XX (2014) Effect of prebiotic konjac mannan oligosaccharide on growth performances, intestinal microflora, and digestive enzyme activities in yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Fish Physiol Biochem 40:763–771

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  • Yilmaz E, Genc MA, Genc E (2007) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides on growth, body composition, and intestine and liver histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Isr J Aquacult Bamidgeh 59:182–188

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhou XQ, Li YL (2004) The effects of Bio-MOS on intestinal microflora and immune function of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In: Nutritional biotechnology in the feed and food industries: Proceedings of Alltech’s 20th annual symposium (suppl. 1-Abstracts of posters presented) May 24–26, Lexington, KY, p 109

  • Zhou QC, Buentello JA, Gatlin DM III (2010) Effects of dietary prebiotics on growth performance, immune response and intestinal morphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquacult 309:253–257

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


This research was supported by the Organization for Women in Science in the Developing World and Postgraduate Research Grant Scheme in USM.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mst. Nahid Akter.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Akter, M.N., Sutriana, A., Talpur, A.D. et al. Dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide influences growth, digestive enzymes, gut morphology, and microbiota in juvenile striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus . Aquacult Int 24, 127–144 (2016).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: