Aquaculture International

, Volume 24, Issue 1, pp 127–144 | Cite as

Dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide influences growth, digestive enzymes, gut morphology, and microbiota in juvenile striped catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

  • Mst. Nahid Akter
  • Amalia Sutriana
  • Allah Dad Talpur
  • Roshada Hashim


This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) dietary supplementation on growth, digestive enzyme activities, gut morphology, and microbiota in striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus). Triplicate groups of juvenile striped catfish (initial weight 20.41 ± 1.64 g) were fed twice per day at 2.5 % of body weight for 12 weeks, with 0 (control), 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, or 0.8 % MOS diets. Compared to control (0.74 ± 0.03) and fish fed low MOS concentration, those fed 0.6 % (1.01 ± 0.02) or 0.8 % (1.03 ± 0.03) MOS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) specific growth rates. Feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, respectively, significantly improved (P < 0.05) in fish fed 0.6 % (1.62 ± 0.23; 1.71 ± 0.23) or 0.8 % (1.42 ± 0.06; 1.92 ± 0.08) MOS. Further, compared to control and fish fed 0.2 % MOS, those fed 0.6 % MOS had significantly higher (P < 0.05) apparent protein and dry matter digestibilities. Amylase, protease, and lipase activities, respectively, were significantly higher (P < 0.05) in fish fed 0.6 % MOS (5.10 ± 0.97; 0.47 ± 0.08; and 5.59 ± 1.82) than in control (2.60 ± 0.53; 0.32 ± 0.05; and 3.78 ± 0.72). Histological analysis of the anterior and posterior gut showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) villus length in 0.6 and 0.8 % MOS fed fish than in the control and other treatments. The guts of fish fed different MOS concentrations showed similar total lactic acid bacteria counts, which were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those in the control. Thus, 0.6 % MOS-supplemented diet improved growth, feed utilization, digestive enzyme activities, gut morphology, and microbiota in juvenile striped catfish.


Digestive enzyme activities Growth performance Gut microbiota Intestinal structure Nutrient digestibility Pangasianodon hypophthalmus Prebiotics 



Mannan oligosaccharide


Carboxymethyl cellulose


Nitrogen-free extract


Gross energy


Hepatosomatic index


Intraperitoneal fat


Viscerosomatic index


Specific growth rate


Food conversion ratio


Protein efficiency ratio


Association of official analytical chemists


Polyvinyl alcohol


Transmission electron microscope


Lactic acid bacteria


Total bacteria


Apparent protein digestibility


Apparent dry matter digestibility


Colony-forming unit


De Man, Rogosa, and Sharpe


Tryptic soy agar



This research was supported by the Organization for Women in Science in the Developing World and Postgraduate Research Grant Scheme in USM.


  1. Anguiano M, Pholenz C, Buentello A, Gatlin DM III (2013) The effects of prebiotics on the digestive enzymes and gut histomorphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus) and hybrid striped bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis). Br J Nutr 109:623–629PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AOAC (1997) Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International, 16th edn, vol. 1, Arlington, VA, USA, pp 1–3Google Scholar
  3. Aziza AE, Awadin WF, Quezada N, Cherian G (2014) Gastrointestinal morphology, fatty acid profile, and production performance of broiler chickens fed camelina meal or fish oil. Eur J Lipid Sci Technol 116:1727–1733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bier M (1955) Lipases: RCOOR′ + H2O → RCOOH + R′OH. Methods Enzymol 1:627–642CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem 72:248–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Burr G, Gatlin D III, Ricke S (2005) Microbial ecology of the gastrointestinal tract of fish and the potential application of prebiotics and probiotics in finfish aquaculture. J World Aquacult Soc 36:425–436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chong ASC, Hashim R, Chow-Yang L, Ali AB (2002) Partial characterization and activities of proteases from the digestive tract of discus fish (Symphysodon aequifasciata). Aquaculture 203:321–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Daniels CL, Merrifield DL, Boothroyd DP, Davies SJ, Factor JR, Arnold KE (2010) Effect of dietary Bacillus spp. and mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) on European lobster (Homarus gammarus L) larvae growth performance, gut morphology and gut microbiota. Aquaculture 304:49–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. De Silva SS, Phuong NT (2011) Striped catfish farming in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: a tumultuous path to a global success. Rev Aquacult 3:45–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Moate R, Davies SJ, Spring P, Sweetman J, Bradley G (2009) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide supplementation modulates intestinal microbial ecology and improves gut morphology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). J Anim Sci 87:3226–3234PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dimitroglou A, Merrifield DL, Spring P, Sweetman J, Moate R, Davies SJ (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) supplementation on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal histology and gut microbiota of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 300:182–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Dimitroglou A, Reynolds P, Ravnoy B, Johnsen F, Sweetman JW, Johansen J, Davies SJ (2011) The effect of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on Atlantic salmon smolts (Salmo salar L.) fed diets with high levels of plant proteins. J Aquacult Res Dev S1:011. doi: 10.4172/2155-9546.S1-011
  13. Duncan DB (1955) Multiple range and multiple (F) tests. Biometrics 11:1–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Furukawa A, Tsukahara H (1966) On the acid digestion method for the determination of chromium oxide as an index substance in the study of digestibility of fish feed. Bull Jpn Soc Sci Fish 32:502–506CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gatlin DM III (2002) Nutrition and fish health. In: Halver JE, Hardy RW (eds) Fish nutrition, 3rd edn. Elsevier Science, San Diego, pp 671–702Google Scholar
  16. Genc MA, Aktas M, Genc E, Yilmaz E (2007a) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on growth, body composition and hepatopancreas histology of Penaeus semisulcatus (de Haan 1844). Aquacult Nutr 13:156–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Genc MA, Yilmaz E, Genc E, Aktas M (2007b) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) on growth, body composition, and intestine and liver histology of the hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus × O. aureus). Isr J Aquacult Bamigdeh 59:10–16Google Scholar
  18. Gibson GR, Roberfroid MB (1995) Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: introducing the concept of prebiotics. J Nutr 125:1401–1412PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Grisdale-Helland B, Helland SJ, Gatlin DM III (2008) The effects of dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharide, fructooligosaccharide or galactooligosaccharide on the growth and feed utilization of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquacult 283:163–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gültepe N, Salnur S, Hossu B, Hisar O (2011) Dietary supplementation with mannan oligosaccharides (MOS) from Bio-Mos enhances growth parameters and digestive capacity of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquacult Nutr 17:482–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Güroy B, Sahin I, Kayali S, Mantoǧlu S, Canan B, Merrifield DL, Davies SJ, Güroy D (2013) Evaluation of feed utilization and growth performance of juvenile striped catfish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus fed diets with varying inclusion levels of corn gluten meal. Aquacult Nutr 19:258–266CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krogdahl Å, Sundby A, Olli JJ (2004) Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) digest and metabolize nutrients differently. Effects of water salinity and dietary starch level. Aquaculture 229:335–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lewis PR, Knight DP (1977) Staining methods for sectioned material. In: Glauert AM (ed) Practical methods in electron microscopy, vol 5., Elsevier/NorthHolland Biomedical pressAmsterdam, Netherlands, pp 43–44Google Scholar
  24. Manning TS, Gibson GR (2004) Prebiotics. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 18:287–298PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Mazlum Y, Yilmaz E, Genc MA, Guner O (2011) A preliminary study on the use of mannan oligosaccharide (MOS) in freshwater crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823 juvenile diets. Aquacult Int 19:111–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Merrifield D, Zhou Z (2011) Probiotic and prebiotic applications inaquaculture. J Aquacult Res Dev S 1:e001. doi: 10.4172/2155-9546.S1-e001 Google Scholar
  27. Natalia Y, Hashim R, Ali A, Chong A (2004) Characterization of digestive enzymes in a carnivorous ornamental fish, the Asian bony tongue Scleropages formosus (Osteoglossidae). Aquacult 233:305–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Pryor GS, Royes JB, Chapman FA, Miles RD (2003) Mannan oligosaccharides in fish nutrition: Effects of dietary supplementation on growth and gastrointestinal villi structure in Gulf of Mexico sturgeon. N Am J Aquacult 65:106–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Robaina L, Izquierdo MS, Moyano FJ, Socorro J, Vergara JM, Montero D, Fernández-Palacios H (1995) Soybean and lupin seed meals as protein sources in diets for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata): nutritional and histological implications. Aquaculture 130:219–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rodriguez-Estrada U, Satoh S, Haga Y, Fushimi H, Sweetman J (2013) Effects of inactivated Enterococcus faecalis and mannan oligosaccharide and their combination on growth, immunity, and disease protection in rainbow trout. N Am J Aquacult 75:416–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Salaghi Z, Imanpuor M, Taghizadeh V (2013) Effect of different levels of probiotic primalac on growth performance and survival rate of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus). Glob Vet 11:238–242Google Scholar
  32. Salze G, McLean E, Schwarz MH, Craig SR (2008) Dietary mannan oligosaccharide enhances salinity tolerance and gut development of larval cobia. Aquaculture 274:148–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sang HM, Fotedar R (2010) Effects of mannan oligosaccharide dietary supplementation on performances of the tropical spiny lobsters juvenile (Panulirus ornatus, Fabricius 1798). Fish Shellfish Immunol 28:483–489PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sang HM, Fotedar R, Filler K (2011) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on the survival, growth, immunity and digestive enzyme activity of freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor Clark (1936). Aquacult Nutr 17:629–635CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Shan X, Xiao Z, Huang W, Dou S (2008) Effects of photoperiod on growth, mortality and digestive enzymes in miiuy croaker larvae and juveniles. Aquaculture 281:70–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Singh AK, Lakra WS (2012) Culture of Pangasianodon hypophthalmus into India: impacts and present scenario. Pak J Biol Sci 15:19–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Soleimani N, Hoseinifar SH, Merrifield DL, Barati M, Abadi ZH (2012) Dietary supplementation of fructooligosaccharide (FOS) improves the innate immune response, stress resistance, digestive enzyme activities and growth performance of Caspian roach (Rutilus rutilus) fry. Fish Shellfish Immunol 32:316–321PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Spring P, Privulescu M (1998) Mannan oligosaccharide: its logical role as natural feed additive for piglets. In: Lyons TP, Jacques KA (eds) Biotechnology in the feed industry. Proceedings of Alltech’s 14th annual symposium, Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, pp 553–561Google Scholar
  39. Staykov Y, Spring P, Denev S, Sweetman J (2007) Effect of a mannan oligosaccharide on the growth performance and immune status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquacult Int 15:153–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Robaina L, Real F, Sweetman J, Tort L, Izquierdo MS (2007) Immune stimulation and improved infection resistance in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharide. Fish Shellfish Immunol 23:969–981PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Torrecillas S, Makol A, Caballero MJ, Montero D, Gines R, Sweetman J, Izquierdo M (2011) Improved feed utilization, intestinal mucus production and immune parameters in sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) fed mannan oligosaccharides (MOS). Aquacult Nutr 17:223–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Walter HE (1984) Proteinases: methods with hemoglobin, casein and azocoll as substrates. In: Bergmeyer HU (ed) Methods of enzymatic analysis, vol 5. Verlag Chemie, Weinheim, pp 270–277Google Scholar
  43. Wang YB (2007) Effect of probiotics on growth performance and digestive enzyme activity of the shrimp Penaeus vannamei. Aquaculture 269:259–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Worthington CC (ed) (1988) Worthington enzyme manual: alpha amylase. In: Enzymes, and related biochemicals. Worthington Biochemical Corporation, Freehold, New Jersey, USA, pp 38–42Google Scholar
  45. Wu ZX, Yu YM, Chen X, Liu H, Yuan JF, Shi Y, Chen XX (2014) Effect of prebiotic konjac mannan oligosaccharide on growth performances, intestinal microflora, and digestive enzyme activities in yellow catfish, Pelteobagrus fulvidraco. Fish Physiol Biochem 40:763–771PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Yilmaz E, Genc MA, Genc E (2007) Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharides on growth, body composition, and intestine and liver histology of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Isr J Aquacult Bamidgeh 59:182–188Google Scholar
  47. Zhou XQ, Li YL (2004) The effects of Bio-MOS on intestinal microflora and immune function of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian). In: Nutritional biotechnology in the feed and food industries: Proceedings of Alltech’s 20th annual symposium (suppl. 1-Abstracts of posters presented) May 24–26, Lexington, KY, p 109Google Scholar
  48. Zhou QC, Buentello JA, Gatlin DM III (2010) Effects of dietary prebiotics on growth performance, immune response and intestinal morphology of red drum (Sciaenops ocellatus). Aquacult 309:253–257CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Aquaculture Research Group, Laboratory of Feeds and Feeding Management, School of Biological SciencesUniversiti Sains MalaysiaPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Faculty of FisheriesHajee Mohammad Danesh Science and Technology UniversityDinajpurBangladesh
  3. 3.Faculty of Veterinary MedicineSyiah Kuala UniversityAcehIndonesia

Personalised recommendations