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Enhanced disease resistance in the Indian snakehead, Channa punctata against Aeromonas hydrophila, through 5 % feed supplementation with F. benghalensis (aerial root) and L. leucocephala (pod seed)

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Abstract

Ficus benghalensis and Leucaena leucocephala are perennial trees commonly known for their wide medicinal use in India. Immuno-stimulatory effect of F. benghalensis (aerial root) or L. leucocephala (pod seeds) 5 % powder as supplementary ingredients in the artificial fish feed of Indian spotted snakehead, Channa punctata, was compared with control group (fish fed with non-supplemented artificial feed). Fish were challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila, a major disease causing bacteria in freshwater fish on weekly intervals for four consecutive weeks. Blood and tissue samples were collected on 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after challenge. The specific immunity (antibody response) and non-specific immunity (lysozyme activity, phagocytic response, nitric oxide and SOD levels) of the fish were evaluated. The increase in the levels of SGOT and SGPT in liver of fish fed with non-supplemented feed indicated damage of most targeting organs by A. hydrophila. However, the levels did not changed significantly in fish fed with experimental feed till the end of experiment. Higher levels of nitric oxide and superoxide dismutase indicated lower stress in fish fed with supplementary feed compared to control group. Fish fed with supplementary feed also showed increase in lysozyme and phagocytic activity. The levels of immunoglobulin in the serum were determined by sandwich ELISA. Higher antibody production in fish fed with supplementary feeds indicated enhanced immune response. The present study highlights the potential immuno-stimulatory response of powder of F. benghalensis and L. leucocephala when supplemented in the artificial feed of C. punctata.

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Acknowledgments

The research project was financially supported by University Grants Commission (UGC, File No 38-226/2009SR), India. Authors are thankful to the Principal for extending all the laboratory facilities. Vipin Kumar Verma is thankful to UGC for providing financial assistance.

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Verma, V.K., Rani, K.V., Sehgal, N. et al. Enhanced disease resistance in the Indian snakehead, Channa punctata against Aeromonas hydrophila, through 5 % feed supplementation with F. benghalensis (aerial root) and L. leucocephala (pod seed). Aquacult Int 23, 1127–1140 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-014-9870-7

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