Skip to main content

Food ingestion, prey selectivity, feeding incidence, and performance of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi larvae under constant and varying temperatures

Abstract

This study tested the effects of constant and varying temperatures on newly hatched yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi larvae in two experiments. In Experiment I, four constant temperatures (21, 23, 25, and 27 °C) were tested under fed or unfed conditions with the fish age from the day of hatch to 24 days post hatch (DPH). Temperatures at 25 and 27 °C reduced the time of fish to reach irreversible starvation, but did not affect the percentage of fish that were able to ingest food. Fish survivals at 21 and 23 °C were significantly higher than those at 25 °C by 24 DPH, but all fish died at 27 °C by 24 DPH in the treatment with food. In Experiment II, three constant temperatures (21, 23, and 25 °C) and two varying temperatures (21–23 and 21–25 °C) were compared using fish from hatch to 28 DPH. On 4 DPH, fish ingested more rotifers, but from 6 to 9 DPH, fish ingested fewer rotifers at 25 °C than at other temperatures. On 19 and 23 DPH, fish ingested more Artemia at 25 °C than at other temperatures. At 25 °C, fish selected for Artemia nauplii earlier than at other temperatures. Fish length and survival between constant temperatures (21 and 23 °C) were not significantly different, but fish survival at the constant 21 °C or at the 21–25 °C varying temperature was significantly higher than that at the constant 23 °C or at the 21–23 °C varying temperature. This study indicates that within the range of temperature tested, the optimal temperature for the first feeding larvae is 21–23 °C after hatch and mortality is likely to occur at ≥25 °C in the first 10 DPH, but fish grew faster at 25 °C after they adapted to the increasing temperature.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6

References

  1. Aritaki M, Seikai T (2004) Temperature effects on early development and occurrence of metamorphosis-related morphological abnormalities in hatchery-reared brown sole Pseudopleuronectes herzensteini. Aquaculture 240:517–530

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Baras E, Raynaud T, Slembrouck J, Caruso D, Cochet C, Legendre M (2011) Interactions between temperature and size on the growth, size heterogeneity, mortality and cannibalism in cultured larvae and juveniles of the Asian catfish, Pangasianodon hypophthalmus (Sauvage). Aquac Res 42:260–276

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Benetti DD, Nakada M, Shotton S, Poortenaar C, Tracy P, Hutchinson W (2005) Aquaculture of three species of yellowtail jacks (Carangidae, Seriola spp.). In: Kelly A, Silverstein J (eds) Aquaculture in the 21st century. American Fisheries Society Symposium, pp 491–515

  4. Berlinsky DL, Taylor JC, Howell RA, Bradley TM (2004) The effects of temperature and salinity on early life stages of black sea bass Centropristis striata. J World Aquac Soc 35:335–344

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. Bidwell DA, Howell WH (2001) The effect of temperature on first feeding, growth, and survival of larval witch flounder Glyptocephalus cynoglossus. J World Aquac Soc 32:373–384

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Blaxter JHS (1992) The effect of temperature on larval fishes. Neth J Zool 42:336–357

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. Blaxter JHS, Hempel G (1963) The influence of egg size on herring larvae (Clupea harengus L.). J Cons Perm Int Explor Mer 28:211–240

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Boujard T, Medale F (1994) Regulation of voluntary feed intake in juvenile rainbow trout fed by hand or by self-feeders with diets containing two different protein/energy ratios. Aquat Living Resour 7:211–215

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Brett JR (1979) Environmental factors and growth. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish physiology. Academic Press, New York, pp 599–675

    Google Scholar 

  10. Bromley PJ, Adkins TC (1984) The influence of cellulose filler on feeding, growth and utilization of protein and energy in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J Fish Biol 24:235–241

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. Bryars SR, Havenhand JN (2006) Effects of constant and varying temperatures on the development of blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) larvae: laboratory observations and field predictions for temperate coastal waters. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 329:218–229

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bustos CA, Landaeta MF, Bay-Schmith E, Lewis R, Moraga X (2007) Effects of temperature and lipid droplet adherence on mortality of hatchery-reared southern hake Merluccius australis larvae. Aquaculture 270:535–540

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Carton AG (2005) The impact of light intensity and algal-induced turbidity on first-feeding Seriola lalandi larvae. Aquac Res 36:1588–1594

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Chen BN, Qin JG, Kumar MS, Hutchinson W, Clarke S (2006) Ontogenetic development of the digestive system in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi larvae. Aquaculture 256:489–501

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Chen BN, Qin JG, Carragher JF, Clarke SM, Kumar MS, Hutchinson WG (2007) Deleterious effects of food restrictions in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi during early development. Aquaculture 271:326–335

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Choa BY, Carter CG, Battaglene SC (2010) Effects of temperature regime on growth and development of post-larval striped trumpeter (Latris lineata). Aquaculture 305:95–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Dou SZ, Masuda R, Tanaka M, Tsukamoto K (2005) Effects of temperature and delayed initial feeding on the survival and growth of Japanese flounder larvae. J Fish Biol 66:362–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Fielder DS, Bardsley WJ, Allan GL, Pankhurst PM (2005) The effects of salinity and temperature on growth and survival of Australian snapper, Pagrus auratus larvae. Aquaculture 250:201–214

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Fountoulaki E, Vasilaki A, Hurtado R, Grigorakis K, Karacostas I, Nengas I, Rigos G, Kotzamanis Y, Venou B, Alexis MN (2009) Fish oil substitution by vegetable oils in commercial diets for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata L.); effects on growth performance, flesh quality and fillet fatty acid profile: recovery of fatty acid profiles by a fish oil finishing diet under fluctuating water temperatures. Aquaculture 289:317–326

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. Fowler AJ, Ham JM, Jennings PR (2003) Discriminating between cultured and wild yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) in South Australia. SARDI aquatic sciences, publication no. RD03/0159 Adelaide, Australia, p 96

  21. Fukuhara O (1990) Effects of temperature on yolk utilization, initial growth, and behaviour of unfed marine fish-larvae. Mar Biol 106:169–174

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Gannam AL (2008) Feeding activity in teleost fish: influence of biotic and abiotic factors. In: Cyrino JEP, Bureau DP, Kapoor BG (eds) Feeding and digestive functions of fishes. Science Publishers, Enfield, pp 69–80

    Google Scholar 

  23. Gardeur JN, Mathis N, Kobilinsky A, Brun-Bellut J (2007) Simultaneous effects of nutritional and environmental factors on growth and flesh quality of Perca fluviatilis using a fractional factorial design study. Aquaculture 273:50–63

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Gisbert E, Conklin DB, Piedrahita RH (2004) Effects of delayed first feeding on the nutritional condition and mortality of California halibut larvae. J Fish Biol 64:116–132

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Grove DJ, Loizides LJ, Nott J (1978) Satiation amount, frequency of feeding and gastric emptying rate in Salmo gairdneri. J Fish Biol 12:507–516

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Heming TA, McInerney JE, Alderdice DF (1982) Effect of temperature on initial feeding in alevins of chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus tshawytscha). Can J Fish Aquat Sci 39:1154–1562

    Google Scholar 

  27. Hilton Z, Poortenaar CW, Sewell MA (2008) Lipid and protein utilisation during early development of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi). Mar Biol 154:855–865

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Houde ED (1989) Comparative growth, mortality, and energetics of marine fish larvae: temperature and implied latitudinal effects. Fish Bull 87:471–495

    Google Scholar 

  29. Hunt von Herbing I, Gallager SM (2000) Foraging behavior in early Atlantic code larvae (Gadus morhua) feeding on a protozoan (Balanion sp.) and a copepod nauplius (Pseudodiaptomus sp.). Mar Biol 136:591–602

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Hutson KS, Ernst I, Mooney AJ, Whittington ID (2007) Metazoan parasite assemblages of wild Seriola lalandi (Carangidae) from eastern and southern Australia. Parasitol Int 56:95–105

    PubMed  Article  Google Scholar 

  31. Ivlev (1961) Experimental ecology of the feeding of fishes. Yale University Press, New Haven

    Google Scholar 

  32. Jobling M (1994) Fish bioenergetic. Chapman and Hall, London

    Google Scholar 

  33. Jordaan A, Kling LJ (2003) Determining the optimal temperature range for Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) during early life. In: Browman HI, Skiftesvik AB (eds) The big fish bang. Proceedings of the 26th annual larval fish conference. The institute of Marine Research, pp 46–62

  34. Kamler E (1992) Early life history of fish: an energetics approach. Chapman and Hall, London

    Book  Google Scholar 

  35. Keckeis H, Kamler E, Bauer-Nemeschkal E, Schneeweiss K (2001) Survival, development and food energy partitioning of nase larvae and early juveniles at different temperatures. J Fish Biol 59:45–61

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Kestemont P, Baras E (2001) Environmental factors and feed intake: mechanisms and interactions. In: Houlihan D, Boujard T, Jobling M (eds) Food intake in fish. Blackwell Science, Cornwall, pp 131–156

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  37. Kohno H, Ordonio-Aguilar RS, Ohno A, Taki Y (1997) Why is grouper rearing difficult? An approach from the development of the feeding apparatus in early stage larvae of the grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Ichthyol Res 44:267–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Lein I, Holmefjord I, Rye M (1997) Effects of temperature on yolk sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Aquaculture 157:123–135

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Ma Z, Qin JG (2012) Replacement of fresh algae with commercial formulas to enrich rotifers in larval rearing of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes, 1833). Aquac Res. doi:10.1111/are.12037

    Google Scholar 

  40. Ma Z, Qin JG, Hutchinson W, Chen BN, Song L (2012a) Responses of digestive enzymes and body lipids to weaning times in yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi (Valenciennes, 1833) larvae. Aquac Res. doi:10.1111/are.12039

    Google Scholar 

  41. Ma Z, Qin JG, Hutchinson W, Chen BN (2012b) Optimal live food densities for growth, survival, food selection and consumption of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi larvae. Aquac Nutr 19:523–534

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Ma Z, Qin JG, Nie ZL (2012c) Morphological changes of marine fish larvae and their nutrition need. In: Pourali K, Raad VN (eds) Larvae: morphology, biology and life cycle. Nova Science Publishers Inc, New York, pp 1–20

    Google Scholar 

  43. Martell DJ, Kieffer JD, Trippel EA (2005) Effect of temperature during early life history on embryonic and larval development and growth in haddock. J Fish Biol 66:1558–1575

    Article  Google Scholar 

  44. Martínez-Palacios CA, Barriga Tovar E, Taylor JF, Ríos Durán G, Ross LG (2002) Effect of temperature on growth and survival of Chirostoma estor estor, Jordan 1879, monitored using a simple video technique for remote measurement of length and mass of larval and juvenile fishes. Aquaculture 209:369–377

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. McGurk MD (1984) Effects of delayed feeding and temperature on the age of irreversible starvation and on the rates of growth and mortality of Pacific herring larvae. Mar Biol 84:13–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Moran D, Gara B, Wells RMG (2007a) Energetics and metabolism of yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833) during embryogenesis. Aquaculture 265:359–369

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Moran D, Smith CK, Gara B, Poortenaar CW (2007b) Reproductive behaviour and early development in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi Valenciennes 1833). Aquaculture 262:95–104

    Article  Google Scholar 

  48. Naas KE, Naess T, Harboe T (1992) Enhanced first feeding of halibut larvae (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.) in green water. Aquaculture 105:143–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Otterlei E, Nyhammer G, Folkvord A, Stefansson SO (1999) Temperature- and size-dependent growth of larval and early juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua): a comparative study of Norwegian coastal cod and northeast Arctic cod. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 56:2099–2111

    Article  Google Scholar 

  50. Qin JG, Fast AW (1997) Food selection and growth of young snakehead (Channa striatus). J App Ichthyol 13:21–26

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. Qin JG, Hillier T (2000) Live food and feeding ecology of larval snapper (Pagrus auratus). In: McKinnon D, Rimmer M, Kolkovski S (eds) Workshop proceedings: hatchery feeds. The Fisheries Research Development Corporation, Cairns, pp 63–68

  52. Shan X, Quan H, Dou S (2008a) Effects of delayed first feeding on growth and survival of rock bream Oplegnathus fasciatus larvae. Aquaculture 277:14–23

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Shan XJ, Xiao ZZ, Huang W, Dou SZ (2008b) Effects of photoperiod on growth, mortality and digestive enzymes in miiuy croaker larvae and juveniles. Aquaculture 281:70–76

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Shan XJ, Cao L, Huang W, Dou SZ (2009) Feeding, morphological changes and allometric growth during starvation in miiuy croaker larvae. Environ Biol Fishes 86:121–130

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. Shaw GW, Pankhurst PM, Battaglene SC (2006) Effect of turbidity, prey density and culture history on prey consumption by greenback flounder Rhombosolea tapirina larvae. Aquaculture 253:447–460

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Trotter AJ, Pankhurst PM, Morehead DT, Battaglene SC (2003) Effects of temperature on initial swim bladder inflation and related development in cultured striped trumpeter (Latris lineata) larvae. Aquaculture 221:141–156

    Article  Google Scholar 

  57. Tucker JJW (1988) Energy utilization in bay anchovy, Anchoa mitchilli, and black sea bass, Centropristis striata striata, eggs and larvae. Fish Bull 78:279–293

    Google Scholar 

  58. van der Meeren T (1991) Selective feeding and prediction of food consumption in turbot larvae (Scophthalmus maximus L.) reared on the rotifer Brachionus plicatilis and natural zooplankton. Aquaculture 93:35–55

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. van Maaren CC, Daniels HV (2001) Effects of temperature on egg hatch, larval growth and metamorphosis for hatchery-cultured southern flounder, paralichthys lethostigma. J Appl Aquacult 11:21–33

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Wang N, Xu X, Kestemont P (2009) Effect of temperature and feeding frequency on growth performances, feed efficiency and body composition of pikeperch juveniles (Sander lucioperca). Aquaculture 289:70–73

    Article  Google Scholar 

  61. Wedemeyer GA (1996) Physiology of fish in intensive culture systems. Chapman & Hall, International Thompson Publishing, New York

  62. Woolley LD, Partridge GJ, Qin JG (2012) Mortality reduction in yellowtail kingfish (Seriola lalandi) larval rearing by optimising Artemia feeding regimes. Aquaculture 344–349:161–167

    Article  Google Scholar 

  63. Yin MC, Blaxter JHS (1986) Morphological changes during growth and starvation of larval cod (Gadus morhua L.) and flounder (Platichthys flesus L.). J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 104:215–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Yin MC, Blaxter JHS (1987) Feeding ability and survival during starvation of marine fish larvae reared in the laboratory. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 105:73–83

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Yoseda K, Dan S, Sugaya T, Yokogi K, Tanaka M, Tawada S (2006) Effects of temperature and delayed initial feeding on the growth of Malabar grouper (Epinephelus malabaricus) larvae. Aquaculture 256:192–200

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Yufera M, Polo A, Pascual E (1993) Changes in chemical composition and biomass during the transition from endogenous to exogenous feeding of Sparus aurata L. (Pisces, Sparidae) larvae reared in the laboratory. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 167:149–161

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Zaugg WS, Wood CM (1976) Influence of water temperature on gill sodium, potassium-stimulated ATPase activity in juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch). Comp Biochem Physiol 54A:419–421

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

The author wish to thank Mr Paul Skordas and Mr Daniel Aik Yang Tan for technical assistance in these larval fish rearing experiments. Prof. Jian G. Qin, Dr Ben Nan Chen, and Mr Wayne Hutchinson provided advice and technical support to this project. This research was sponsored by Australian Seafood Cooperative Research Centre and Clean Seas Tuna Ltd. South Australian Research and Development Institute provided research facility.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zhenhua Ma.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Ma, Z. Food ingestion, prey selectivity, feeding incidence, and performance of yellowtail kingfish Seriola lalandi larvae under constant and varying temperatures. Aquacult Int 22, 1317–1330 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-013-9749-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Rotifer
  • Artemia nauplii
  • Food intake
  • Growth
  • Survival
  • Ontogeny