Aquaculture International

, Volume 21, Issue 5, pp 1091–1108 | Cite as

Salt replacement and injection salting in smoked salmon evaluated from descriptive and hedonic sensory perspectives

  • Valérie Lengard AlmliEmail author
  • Margrethe Hersleth


Health concerns related to sodium intake have instigated work towards using salt replacers in salted foods such as smoked salmon. However, innovations in food may influence sensory perception and consumer acceptance for a product. This study investigates salt replacement and brine injection salting in smoked salmon from descriptive and hedonic sensory perspectives. Smoked salmon samples were produced by combining traditional or novel salting techniques (dry salting or brine injection) with traditional or novel salt types (NaCl or NaCl + KCl in a 2:1 ratio). The samples were evaluated with regard to their appearance, odour, taste, flavour and texture by a trained panel in a quantitative descriptive analysis. They were also evaluated by 102 Norwegian consumers in blind (taste only), expectations (product information only) and full information (taste and information combined) conditions. In addition to hedonic liking, the participants evaluated their willingness to pay for the products in a non-hypothetical, incentive-compatible procedure. Descriptive results show that brine injection samples differed in appearance, taste and texture from dry-salting samples, while NaCl + KCl samples obtained the same sensory profile as NaCl samples. Consumers prefer dry-salting samples, but do not discriminate between salt types, neither in liking nor in willingness to pay. Consumers most attracted by the fully traditional treatment are characterised by a frequent consumption of smoked salmon and a focus on nutrition and healthiness in food. Consumers most attracted by the fully innovative treatment tend to be convenience oriented and price conscious. The results indicate a market potential for partially salt-replaced smoked salmon.


Smoked salmon KCl salt replacer Dry salting Injection salting Sensory profile Consumer acceptance Experimental auction (BDM) Willingness to pay 



The authors are grateful to colleagues from the Raw Materials and Process Optimisation department at Nofima, Ås, Norway for the preparation of the smoked salmon samples and to Anne Segtnan and Britt Signe Granli for conducting the experimental auctions. This study was supported by TRUEFOOD (Traditional United Europe Food), an Integrated Project financed by the European Commission under the Sixth Framework Programme (Contract nº FOOD-CT-2006-016264) and ‘Quality labelling and consumer responses in the Norwegian food sector’ (Research Council of Norway, Contract nr. 178200/110). The information in this document reflects only the authors’ views and the Community is not liable for any use that may be made of the information contained therein.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Nofima-Norwegian Institute of Food, Fisheries and Aquaculture ResearchÅsNorway
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry, Biotechnology and Food ScienceThe Norwegian University of Life SciencesÅsNorway

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