Effects of C:N ratio and substrate integration on periphyton biomass, microbial dynamics and growth of Penaeus monodon juveniles
- 968 Downloads
An outdoor growth trial was conducted for 75 days to investigate the effect of C:N ratio and bamboo substrate (S) in brackish water shrimp culture. Penaeus monodon juveniles (0.35 ± 0.03 g) were stocked in experimental tanks with and without bamboo substrate. C:N ratio of 10 and 20 was manipulated with shrimp feed containing 32 % crude protein and rice flour as carbohydrate source. Addition of substrate and higher C:N ratio (CN20+S) significantly reduced (p < 0.01) inorganic nitrogen NH3–N by 48.2 %, NO3–N by 41.6 %, NO2–N by 42.7 % compared with CN10. Substrate addition significantly (p < 0.05) reduced the turbidity by 22.4 % (CN10+S against CN10) and 20.7 % (CN20+S against CN20). Periphyton biomass and total heterotrophic bacterial load were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in CN20+S in comparison with CN10+S treatment. The autotrophic index increased from 123.4 ± 0.62 to 158.9 ± 3.8 for CN10+S and, 121.8 ± 1.6 to 228 ± 9.11 for CN20+S system. Provision of substrate and carbohydrate addition resulted in the highest body weight, 4.87 ± 0.12 g in CN20+S against 3.66 ± 0.07 g in CN20 and 2.90 ± 0.12 g in CN10 through provision of natural food in the form of periphytic algae and heterotrophic bacterial community. Treatment with substrates showed a higher survival rate by 7 % in comparison with without substrate treatments as it acted as shelter to shrimp during molting and there by reduced cannibalism. Thus, our results demonstrated that high C:N ratio and substrate addition improved growth, reduced FCR and better water quality conditions.
KeywordsCarbon nitrogen ratio Microbial dynamics Penaeusmonodon Periphyton Substrate
The authors are grateful to Dr. A.G. Ponniah, the Director, Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture, Chennai and the Officer-in-Charge, Kakdwip Research Centre of CIBA, Kakdwip for providing the required facilities to conduct this study. Comments and suggestions of anonymous reviewers certainly improved the quality of this paper.
- Amisah S, Adjei-boateng D, Afianu D (2008) Effects of bamboo substrate and supplementary feed on growth and production of the African catfish, Clarias gariepinus. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 12:25–28Google Scholar
- APHA (1998) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 20th edn. APHA, Washington, DC, USAGoogle Scholar
- Asaduzzaman M, Wahab MA, Verdegem MCJ, Mondal MN, Azim ME (2009) Effects of stocking density of freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii and addition of different levels of tilapia Oreochromis niloticus on production in C/N controlled periphyton based system. Aquaculture 286:72–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Audelo-Naranjo JM, Martínez-Córdova LR, Voltolina D, Gómez-Jiménez S (2011) Water quality, production parameters and nutritional condition of Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone, 1931) grown intensively in zero water exchange mesocosms with artificial substrates. Aquacult Res 42:1371–1377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Azim ME, Asaeda T (2005) Periphyton structure, diversity and colonization. In: Azim ME, Asaeda T, Verdegem MCJ, van Dam AA, Beveridge MCM (eds) Periphyton: ecology, exploitation and management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 15–33Google Scholar
- Sargent JR (1976) The Structure, function, and metabolism of lipids in marine organisms. In: Malins DC, Sargent JR (eds) Biochemical and biophysical perspectives in marine biology, vol 3. Academic Press, London, pp 149–212Google Scholar
- Sen N, Naskar KR (2003) Algal flora of Sundarbans mangals. Daya publishing house, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
- Strickland JDH, Parsons TR (1972) A practical handbook of seawater analysis. Bull. Fish. Res. Bd, Can 167Google Scholar
- Verdegem MCJ, Eding EH, Sereti V, Munubi RN, Satacruz-Reyes RA, van Dam AA (2005) Similarities between microbial and periphytic biofilms in Aquaculture systems. In: Azim ME, Verdegem MCJ, van Dam AA, Berveridge MCM (eds) Periphyton: ecology, exploitation and management. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 191–205Google Scholar
- Verlencar XN, Desai S (2004) Phytoplankton identification manual. National Institute of Oceanography, Dona PaulaGoogle Scholar
- Zhang B, Lin W, Wang Y, Xu R (2010) Effects of artificial substrates on growth, spatial distribution and non-specific immunity factors of Litopenaeus vannamei in the intensive culture condition. Turkish J Fish Aquat Sci 10:491–497Google Scholar