Two experiments were done to evaluate the effects of poultry meal (PM), meat meal (MM) or solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM) inclusion on the performance of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus. In each experiment, test feeds were formulated with similar contents of digestible protein (DP) and digestible energy (DE) using previously determined digestibility coefficients for this species. In experiment 1, groups of snapper (initial weight 14 g) were fed 4 feeds containing 360, 480, 610 or 730 g kg−1 PM; 3 feeds containing 345, 320 or 500 g kg−1 MM; 3 feeds containing 420, 600 or 780 g kg−1 SBM. In experiment 2, groups of snapper (initial weight 87 g) were fed 3 extruded test feeds that contained combinations of PM, MM, SBM or blood meal (BM) which replaced all but 600, 250 or 160 g kg−1 of fishmeal in respective diet formulations. Both experiments included a proprietary extruded aquafeed (COM) to benchmark fish performance. In experiment 1, weight gain was highest in snapper fed feeds containing 360, 345 or 420 g kg−1 of PM, MM or SBM, respectively, and was similar (P > 0.05) to snapper fed the COM feed. Nonetheless, weight gain and protein retention efficiency tended to decrease as the amount of each test ingredient was increased. Relative feed intake was not affected by the inclusion level of PM, MM or BM, but declined significantly in snapper fed diets containing 600 or 780 g kg−1 SBM. Feeding behaviour indicated fish found these feeds unpalatable. In experiment 2, the harvest weight of snapper fed the 3 extruded test feeds was similar (P > 0.05), but lower than snapper fed the COM feed (i.e. 234 vs. 256 g). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was best in snapper fed the COM feed (FCR = 1.53); however, the FCR of snapper fed feeds containing 160 (FCR = 1.66), 250 (FCR = 1.70) or 600 g kg−1 fishmeal (FCR = 1.60) was not different (P > 0.05). Australian snapper will readily accept feeds containing high levels of PM, MM or SBM and feeds containing these ingredients will support rapid weight and protein gain with little affect on whole body composition. In combination, these feed ingredients were able to replace all but 160 g kg−1 of fishmeal in an extruded test feed. As such, they serve as valuable alternatives to fishmeal and extend the manufacturing options available to aquafeed producers.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Feed conversion ratio
Protein retention efficiency
Protein efficiency ratio
(AOAC) AoOAC (1995) Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists, 16th edn. AOAC Inc, Arlington, Virginia, USA
Abery NW, Gunasekera RM, De Silva SS (2002) Growth and nutrient utilization of Murray cod Maccullochella peelii peellii (Mitchell) fingerlings fed diets with varying levels of soybean meal and blood meal. Aquacult Res 33:279–289
Allan G (2004) Fish for feed versus fish for food. In: Brown AG (ed), Fish, aquaculture and food security; sustaining fish as a food supply. Proceedings of the ATSE Crawford Fund Conference, Parliament House Canberra, 11 August 2004. ATSE Crawford Fund, pp 20–26
Booth MA, Allan GL, Anderson AJ (2005) Investigation of the nutritional requirements of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801): apparent digestibility of protein and energy sources. Aquacult Res 36:378–390
Booth MA, Allan GL, Anderson AJ (2007) Investigation of the nutritional requirements of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus (Bloch and Schneider, 1801): effects of digestible energy content on utilization of digestible protein. Aquacult Res 38:429–440
Bureau DP, Kaushik SJ, Cho CY (2002) Bioenergetics. In: Halver JE, Hardy RW (eds) Fish nutrition, 3rd edn. Academic Press, Elsevier Science, USA, New York, pp 1–59
Catacutan MR, Pagador GE (2004) Partial replacement of fishmeal by defatted soybean meal in formulated diets for the mangrove red snapper, Lutjanus argentimaculatus (Forsskal 1775). Aquacult Res 35:299–306
Coutteau P, Ceulemans S, Van Halteren A, Robles R (2002) Fishmeal and fishoil in aquafeeds; how narrow is the bottleneck for marine fish? In: International aqua feed directory and buyers guide 2002. Perendale Publishers, Cheltenham, pp 20–24
El-Sayed A-FM (1998) Total replacement of fish meal with animal protein sources in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (L.), feeds. Aquacult Res 29:275–280
Glencross B, Curnow J, Hawkins W, Kissil GWM, Peterson D (2003) Evaluation of the feed value of a transgenic strain of the narrow-leaf lupin (Lupinus angustifolius) in the diet of the marine fish, Pagrus auratus. Aquacult Nutr 9:197–206
Gomez-Requeni P, Mingarro M, Calduch-Giner JA, Medale F, Martin SAM, Houlihan DF, Kaushik S, Perez-Sanchez J (2004) Protein growth performance, amino acid utilisation and somatotropic axis responsiveness to fish meal replacement by plant protein sources in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). Aquaculture 232:493–510
Kikuchi K, Sato T, Furuta T, Sakaguchi I, Deguchi Y (1997) Use of meat and bone meal as a protein source in the diet of juvenile Japanese flounder. Fish Sci 63:29–32
Kissil GW, Lupatsch I, Higgs DA, Hardy RW (2000) Dietary substitution of soy and rapeseed protein concentrates for fish meal, and their effects on growth and nutrient utilization in gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Aquacult Res 31:595–601
Krogdahl A, Bakke-McKellep AM, Baeverfjord G (2003) Effects of graded levels of standard soybean meal on intestinal structure, mucosal enzyme activities, and pancreatic response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquacult Nutr 9:361–371
Kureshy N, Davis DA, Arnold CR (2000) Partial replacement of fish meal with meat-and-bone meal, flash-dried poultry by-product meal, and enzyme-digested poultry by-product meal in practical diets for juvenile red drum. N Am J Aquacult 62:266–272
Lupatsch I, Kissil GW, Sklan D, Pfeffer E (1997) Apparent digestibility coefficients of feed ingredients and their predictability in compound diets for gilthead seabream, Sparus aurata L. Aquacult Nutr 3:81–89
Nengas I, Alexis MN, Davies SJ (1999) High inclusion levels of poultry meals and related byproducts in diets for gilthead seabream Sparus aurata L. Aquaculture 179:13–23
Paulin CD (1990) Pagrus auratus, a new combination for the species known as “snapper” in Australasian waters (Pisces:Sparidae). NZJ Mar Freshwat Res 24:259–265
Quartararo N, Allan GL, Bell JD (1998a) Replacement of fish meal in diets for Australian snapper, Pagrus auratus. Aquaculture 166:279–295
Quartararo N, Bell JD, Allan GL (1998b) Substitution of fishmeal in a diet for the carnivorous marine fish Pagrus auratus (Bloch and Schneider) from Southeastern Australia. Asian Fish Sci 10:269–279
Robaina L, Izquierdo MS, Moyano FJ, Socorro J, Vergara JM, Montero D, Fernandez-Palacios H (1995) Soybean and lupin seed meals as protein sources in diets for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata)—nutritional and histological implications. Aquaculture 130:219–233
Robaina L, Moyano FJ, Izquierdo MS, Socorro J, Vergara JM, Montero D (1997) Corn gluten and meat and bone meals as protein sources in diets for gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata): Nutritional and histological implications. Aquaculture 157:347–359
Roberts-Thomson A, Barnes A, Fielder DS, Lester RJG, Adlard RD (2006) Aerosol dispersal of the fish pathogen, Amyloodinium ocellatum. Aquaculture 257:118–123
Rondán M, Hernández MD, Egea MA, García B, Jover M, Rueda FM, Martínez FJ (2004) Effects of fishmeal replacement with soybean meal as protein source, and protein replacement with carbohydrates as an alternative energy source on sharpsnout sea bream, Diplodus puntazzo, fatty acid profile. Aquac Res 35:1220–1227
Saitoh S, Koshio S, Harada H, Watanabe K, Yoshida T, Teshima S, Ishikawa M (2003) Utilization of extruded soybean meal for Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus juveniles. Fish Sci 69:1075–1077
Shearer KD (1994) Factors affecting the proximate composition of cultured fishes with emphasis on salmonids. Aquaculture 119:63–88
Tabata K, Taniguchi N (2000) Differences between Pagrus major and Pagrus auratus through mainly mtDNA control region analysis. Fish Sci 66:9–18
Tacon AGJ (2003) Global trends in aquaculture and compound aquafeed production: a review. Int Aquafeed Directory 2003:8–23
Takagi S, Hosokawa H, Shimeno S, Ukawa M (2000) Utilization of poultry by-product meal in a diet for red sea bream Pagrus major. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 66:428–438
Williams KC, Barlow CG, Rodgers LJ, Ruscoe I (2003) Potential of meat meal to replace fish meal in extruded dry diets for barramundi, Lates calcarifer (Bloch). 1. Growth performance. Aquacult Res 34:23–32
The authors would like to thank Dr Stewart Fielder and the staff of the Marine Fish Breeding Facility at PSFI for providing the snapper used in our experiments and Mr Ian Russell and Ms Rebecca Warner-Smith for their excellent technical assistance during the running of experiments. Special thanks also go to Dr Wayne O’Connor and Dr John Nell for internal review of this manuscript and to Ms Helena Heasman who assisted with manuscript preparation. We would also like to acknowledge the CSIRO and FALA laboratories for conducting the chemical analyses of the samples generated from this study. Special thanks to Dr Dannie Zarate (formerly Ridley Aquafeed Pty. Ltd., Narangba, QLD, Australia) for assistance in formulating and manufacturing the feeds for the outdoor pond trial. The research presented here forms part of a greater body of work supported by the Australian Aquafin Cooperative Research Centre (CRC) for the Sustainable Aquaculture of Finfish.
About this article
Cite this article
Booth, M.A., Allan, G.L. & Anderson, A.J. Influence of poultry meal, meat meal or soybean meal inclusion on weight gain and production characteristics of Australian snapper Pagrus auratus . Aquacult Int 20, 99–115 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-011-9445-9
- Inclusion content
- Feed formulation
- Fishmeal replacement
- Protein retention
- Red sea bream