Aquaculture International

, Volume 19, Issue 4, pp 749–763 | Cite as

Influence of dietary phosphorus on mineralization and morphology of Indian major carp, catla (Catla catla) fingerlings

  • Krishna Sukumaran
  • Asim K. Pal
  • Narottam P. Sahu
  • Shrinivas Jahageerdar
  • Deepak Khambadakone
  • Dipesh Debnath
Original Research


The present study was conducted to investigate the changes in mineralization and morphology in response to graded levels of dietary phosphorus in Indian major carp, Catla (Catla catla) fingerlings (av. wt. 4.23 ± 0.87 g). The experimental system constituted of 24 150-L capacity plastic tanks (eight treatments, three replicates) stocked with 20 fingerlings each. Eight isonitrogenous and isocaloric semi-purified diets (crude protein 35%, crude lipid 8.5%) were formulated with graded levels of phosphorus (0%-control; 0.1; 0.3; 0.5; 0.7; 0.9; 1.1; 1.3; 1.5%) using KH2PO4. The fish were fed twice daily with the respective feeds for a period of 120 days. The percentage of ash content in whole body, vertebrae and opercular bones was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in fish fed low levels of dietary phosphorus (T1, T2) in comparison with other treatments. The concentration of phosphorus and calcium was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in whole body, vertebrae and opercula of fish fed low phosphorus diets (T1, T2) relative to treatments with higher levels of dietary phosphorus supplementation. The concentration of magnesium in opercular and vertebral tissues of T1 group was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than all other groups. The X-ray radiographs did not reveal any skeletal deformities in any of the treatments. Truss analysis showed absence of significant morphological variations between fish of different treatments. The deficiency of dietary phosphorus in catla led to significantly lower mineralization of whole body and bone tissues, but the deficiency was not severe enough to cause skeletal deformities and morphological changes in the fish.


Catla Deformity Feed Indian major carp Mineral Morphology Phosphorus Truss 



Transformed truss distances


Original truss distances


Standard length of fish


Overall mean standard length


Within group slope regressions of the log M against log SL



The scholarship received by the first author from the Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Mumbai, for the PhD study is gratefully acknowledged. The authors are thankful to the Director, CIFE, for providing all the facilities required for the work. The authors gratefully acknowledge the technical assistance received from Mr. A. K. Padmanabhan, Technical officer, AEMD division, CIFE and Ms. Vijula K PhD scholar, AEMD division, CIFE for the estimation of minerals using AAS.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krishna Sukumaran
    • 1
  • Asim K. Pal
    • 2
  • Narottam P. Sahu
    • 2
  • Shrinivas Jahageerdar
    • 3
  • Deepak Khambadakone
    • 4
  • Dipesh Debnath
    • 5
  1. 1.Central Institute of Brackishwater AquacultureChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Fish Nutrition, Biochemistry and Physiology DivisionCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Fish Genetics and Biotechnology DivisionCentral Institute of Fisheries EducationMumbaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of ZoologyUniversity of OklahomaOvalUSA
  5. 5.Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, Regional CentreDispur, GuwahatiIndia

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