A nutrition trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid levels and supplemental Ulva meal on growth performance, feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, and body composition of juvenile Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Four isonitrogenous (CP 40%) diets containing 0% and 5% Ulva meal were formulated to contain 10% (low-lipid; LL) and 20% (high-lipid; HL) crude lipid. Triplicate groups of fish (~10 g) were fed to apparent satiation three times daily for 16 weeks. Fish fed 5% Ulva meal showed an increased growth performance (P < 0.05) compared with fish fed non-Ulva supplemented diets, irrespective of dietary lipid level. In particular, the incorporation of Ulva meal improved specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER). Feeding fish 5% Ulva meal diets resulted in significantly lower carcass lipid content. The results indicate that 5% inclusion of Ulva meal at both dietary lipid levels improves growth performance, feed efficiency, nutrient utilization, and body composition of Nile tilapia.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
AOAC (2003) Official methods of analysis of the association of official analytical chemists, 17th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemist, Arlington, Virginia
Azaza MS, Mensi F, Ksouri J, Dhraief MN, Brini B, Abdelmouleh A, Kraïem MM (2008) Growth of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.) fed with diets containing graded levels of green algae Ulva meal (Ulva rigida) reared in geothermal waters of southern Tunisia. J Appl Ichthyol 24:202–207
Brett JR, Groves TDD (1979) Physiological energetics. In: Hoar WS, Randall DJ, Brett JR (eds) Fish Physiology, vol VIII. Academic Press, New York, pp 279–352
Chou B-S, Shiau S-Y (1996) Optimal dietary lipid level for growth of juvenile hybrid tilapia Oreochromis niloticus × Oreochromis aureus. Aquaculture 143:185–195
De Silva S, Gunaskera RM, Shim KF (1991) Interactions of varying dietary protein and lipid levels in young red tilapia: evidence of protein sparing. Aquaculture 95:305–318
Diler İ, Tekinay AA, Güroy D, Güroy B, Soyuturk M (2007) Effects of Ulva rigida on the growth, feed intake and body composition of common carp, Cyprinus carpio. J Biol Sci 7:305–308
Ellis SC, Reigh RC (1991) Effects of dietary lipid and carbohydrate levels on growth and body composition of juvenile red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. Aquaculture 97:383–394
El-Sayed A-FM (1992) Effect of substituting fish meal with Azolla pinnata in practical diets for fingerlings and adult Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus (L). Aquacult Fish Manag 23:167–173
Food and Agriculture Organization of the World Health Organization (2007) FAO yearbook of fishery statistics, Vol. 100/2. FAO, Rome, p 202
Fasakin EA, Balogun AM, Fasuru BE (1999) Use of duckweed, Spirodela polyrrhiza L. Schleiden, as a protein feedstuff in practical diets for tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Aquac Res 30:313–318
Fiogbé ED, Micha JC, Van Hove C (2004) Use of a natural aquatic fern, Azolla microphylla, as a main component in food for the omnivorous-phytoplanktonophageous tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. J Appl Ichthyol 20:517–520
Fitzsimmons K (2000) Tilapia: the most important aquaculture species of the 21st century. In: Fitzsimmons K, Filho JC (eds) Tilapia aquaculture in the 21st century. Proceedings from the Fifth International Symposium on Tilapia Aquaculture. American Tilapia Association and DPA/MA, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, pp 3–8
García-Casal MN, Pereira AC, Leets I, Ramírez J, Quiroga MF (2007) High iron content and bioavailability in humans from four species of marine algae. J Nutr 137:2691–2695
Güroy BK, Cirik Ş, Güroy D, Sanver F, Tekinay AA (2007) Effects of Ulva rigida or Cystoseira barbata meals as a feed additive on growth performance, feed utilization, and body composition in Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Turk J Vet Anim Sci 31:91–97
Hemre G-I, Sandnes K (1999) Effect of dietary lipid level on muscle composition in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar. Aquacult Nutr 5:9–16
Jauncey K, Ross B (1982) A guide to Tilapia feeds and feeding. Institute of Aquaculture, Stirling, p 111
Ji H, Om A, Yoshimatsu T, Hayashi M, Umino T, Nakagawa H, Asano M, Nakagawa A (2003) Effect of dietary vitamins C and E fortification on lipid metabolism in red sea bream Pagrus major and black sea bream Acanthopagrus schlegeli. Fish Sci 69:1001–1009
Kang’ombe J, Likongwe JS, Eda H, Mtimuni JP (2007) Effect of varying dietary energy level on feed intake, feed conversion, whole-body composition and growth of Malawian tilapia, Oreochromis shiranus- Boulenger. Aquac Res 38:373–380
Martins DA, Valente LMP, Lall SP (2007) Effects of dietary lipid level on growth and lipid utilization by juvenile Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, L). Aquaculture 263:150–158
Mbahinzireki GB, Dabrowski K, Lee K-J, El-Saidy D, Wisner ER (2001) Growth, feed utilization and body composition of tilapia Oreochromis sp. fed with cottonseed meal-based diets in a recirculating system. Aquacult Nutr 7:189–200
Miyasaki T, Sato M, Yoshinaka R, Sakaguchi M (1995) Effect of vitamin C on lipid and carnitine metabolism in rainbow trout. Fish Sci 61:501–506
Mustafa MG, Nakagawa H (1995) A review: dietary benefits of algae as an additive in fish feed. Isr J Aquacult-Bamid 47:155–162
Mustafa MG, Wakamatsu S, Takeda T, Umino T, Nakagawa H (1995) Effects of algae meal as a feed additive on growth performance, feed efficiency, and body composition in red sea bream. Fish Sci 61:25–28
Naegel LCA (1997) Azolla meal as a supplemental feed ingredient for tilapias. In: Fitzimmons K (ed) Proceedings of the 4th International Symposium on Tilapia in Aquaculture, Orlando, FL, USA, pp 20–30
Nakagawa H (1997) Effect of dietary algae on improvement of lipid metabolism in fish. Biomed Pharmocother 51:345–348
Nakagawa H, Mustafa MG, Takii K, Umino T, Kumai H (2000) Effect of dietary catechin and Spirulina on vitamin C metabolism in red sea bream. Fish Sci 66:321–326
Ortiz J, Romero N, Robert P, Araya J, Lopez-Hernández J, Bozzo C, Navarrete E, Osorio A, Rios A (2006) Dietary fiber, amino acid, fatty acid and tocopherol contents of the edible seaweeds Ulva lactuca and Durvillaea antarctica. Food Chem 99:98–104
Rinchard J, Mbahinzireki G, Dabrowski K, Lee KJ, Garcia-Abiado MA, Ottobre J (2002) Effects of dietary cottonseed meal protein level on growth, gonad development and plasma sex steroid hormones of tropical fish tilapia Oreochromis sp. Aquacult Int 10:11–28
Sargent JR, Tocher DR, Bell GJ (2002) The lipids. In: Halver JE, Hardy R (eds) Fish nutrition. Academic Press, San Diego, CA, pp 181–257
Suresh V (2003) Tilapias. In: Lucas JS, Southgate PC (eds) Aquaculture: farming aquatic animals and plants. Blackwell Publishing, Oxford, UK, pp 321–345
Valente LMP, Gouveia A, Rema P, Matos J, Gomes EF, Pinto IS (2006) Evaluation of three seaweeds Gracilaria bursa-pastoris, Ulva rigida and Gracilaria cornea as dietary ingredients in European sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax juveniles. Aquaculture 252:85–91
Wassef EA, El-Sayed AFM, Kandeel KM, Sakr EM (2005) Evaluation of Pterocla dia and Ulva meals as additives to gilthead seabream Sparus aurata diets. Egypt J Aquat Res 31:321–332
Willie L, McLean E, Goddard JS, Byatt JC (2002) Dietary lipid level and growth hormone alter growth and body conformation of blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. Aquaculture 209:219–232
Yigit M, Yardim Ö, Koshio S (2002) The protein sparing effects of high lipid levels in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, W. 1792) with special reference to reduction of total nitrogen excretion. Isr J Aquacult-Bamid 54:79–88
Zar JH (2001) Biostatistical analysis, 4th edn. Prentice-Hall, Inc, Upper Saddle River, NJ, p 931
This work was supported by the Council of Scientific Research Projects of Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University Project No: 2005/81.
About this article
Cite this article
Ergün, S., Soyutürk, M., Güroy, B. et al. Influence of Ulva meal on growth, feed utilization, and body composition of juvenile Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) at two levels of dietary lipid. Aquacult Int 17, 355 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10499-008-9207-5
- Dietary lipid
- Ulva meal
- Nile tilapia
- Feed utilization