Aquaculture International

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 425–443 | Cite as

Multi-criteria evaluation approach to GIS-based land-suitability classification for tilapia farming in Bangladesh

  • M. Shahadat HossainEmail author
  • Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury
  • Nani Gopal Das
  • M. Moshiur Rahaman
Original Paper


Site selection is a key factor in any aquaculture operation, because it affects both success and sustainability. It can, moreover, solve conflicts between different activities, making rational use of the land. This study was conducted to identify suitable sites for development of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) farming in Sitakunda Upazila (sub-district), Bangladesh, using GIS-based multi-criteria evaluation of water and soil quality, topography, infrastructure and socio-economic factors. ASTER image and eighteen thematic layers were analyzed using ENVI and ArcView software to identify the suitable areas for tilapia farm development. A constraint layer was used to exclude areas from suitability maps that cannot be allowed to implement tilapia farming. A series of GIS models were developed to identify and prioritize the most suitable areas for tilapia farming. The output of the model clearly indicates the location and extent of tilapia farming areas on different suitability scales, i.e. most suitable (7,744 ha), moderately suitable (2,479 ha), and not suitable (838 ha). Model outputs were assessed against field verification data, and were consistent. Because existing aquaculture covers only 1,540 ha of land in the study area, the potential for expanding tilapia farms should take into consideration socio-political and environmental issues. The results are encouraging in terms of tilapia culture development and suggest that grassland–agriculture areas could be used for sustainable development of tilapia farming to diversify the economic activities of rural communities.


Analytical hierarchy process GIS Land suitability Multi-criteria evaluation Tilapia farming 


  1. Aguilar-Manjarrez J, Ross LG (1995) Geographical Information System (GIS), environmental models for aquaculture development in Sinaloa state, Mexico. Aquacult Int 3(2):103–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Al-Ahmad T, Ridha M, Al-Ahmad AA (1988) Production and feed ratio of the tilapia Oreochromis spilurus in seawater. Aquaculture 73:111–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Boyd CE (1990) Water quality in ponds for aquaculture. Auburn University, Auburn, ALGoogle Scholar
  4. Burrough PA (1986) Principles of Geographic Information System for land resources assessment. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  5. Burrough PA, McDonnell RA (1998) Principles of Geographical Information Systems. Oxford University Press, New York, p 333Google Scholar
  6. Caulton MS (1982) Feeding, metabolism and growth of tilapias: some quantitative considerations. In: Pullin RVS, Lower-McConnell RH (eds) The biology and culture of tilapias. ICLARM Conference Proceedings 7, 2–5 September 1980, Bellagio, Italy. International Center for Living Aquatic Resources Management, Manila, Phillippines, pp 157–180Google Scholar
  7. Clark JH, Wantanabe WO, Ernst DH, Wicklund RI (1990) Effect of feeding rate on growth and feed conversion of Florida red tilapia reared in floating marine cages. J World Aquacult Soc 20:16–24CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Denzer HW (1967) Studies on the physiology of young tilapia. FAO Fish Rep 44:358–366Google Scholar
  9. Diana JS, Lin CK, Yi Y (1996) Timing of supplemental feeding for tilapia production. J World Aquacult Soc 27:410–419CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. FAO (1993) Guidelines for land use planning. FAO Development Series 1. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  11. FAO (1976) A framework for land evaluation. Soils Bulletin, vol. 32. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  12. Fegan DF (1994) Environmental assessment and management of aquaculture development: an industry perspective. Workshop on environmental assessment and management of aquaculture. Third meeting of the Technical Advisory Committee (TAC 3) of the Network of Aquaculture Centres of Asia-Pacific, Hanoi, S. R. Vietnam, 27–30 September 1994, pp 18–29Google Scholar
  13. Gannam A, Phillips H (1993) Effects of temperature on growth of Oreochromis niloticus. In: Egna HS, McNamara M, Bowan J, Astin N (eds) Tenth annual administrative report. Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture CRSP, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, pp 136–142Google Scholar
  14. GESAMP (IMO/FAO/UNESCO/WMO/WHO/IAEA/UN/UNEP Joint Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Pollution) (1997) Towards safe and effective use of chemicals in coastal aquaculture. Rep Stud GESAMP 65, p 40Google Scholar
  15. Giap DH, Yi Y, Yakupitiyage A (2005) GIS for land evaluation for shrimp farming in Haiphong of Vietnam. Ocean Coast Manage 48:51–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gregory G, Guttman H (2002) Developing appropriate interventions for rice-fish cultures, In: Edwards P, Little DC, Demaine H (eds) Rural aquaculture, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 15–28Google Scholar
  17. Hossain MS, Alam SMN, Lin CK, Demaine H, Khan YSA, Das NG, Rouf MA (2004) integrated management approach for shrimp culture development in the coastal environment of Bangladesh. World Aquacult 35(1):35–45Google Scholar
  18. Hossain MS, Lin CK, Demaine H, Tokunaga M, Hussain MZ (2003a) Land use zoning for solar salt production in Cox’s Bazar coast of Bangladesh: A Remote Sensing and GIS analysis. Asian J Geoinformatics 3(4):69–77Google Scholar
  19. Hossain MS, Lin CK, Tokunaga M, Hussain MZ (2003b) Remote Sensing and GIS application for suitable mangrove afforestation area selection in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Geocarto Int 18(1):61–65Google Scholar
  20. Hossain MS, Lin CK (2001) Land use zoning for integrated coastal zone management: Remote Sensing, GIS and RRA approach in Cox’s Bazar coast, Bangladesh. ITCZM Publication Series, No.3, Asian Institute of Technology, Bangkok, Thailand, p 25Google Scholar
  21. Hossain MS, Lin CK, Demaine H, Tokunaga M, Hussain MZ (2001) Integrated GIS and Remote Sensing approaches for suitable shrimp farming area selection in the coastal zone of Bangladesh. Asia-Pacific Rem Sens GIS J 14:33–39Google Scholar
  22. Islam MJ, Alam MS, Elahi KM (1997) Remote sensing for change detection in the Sunderbans, Bangladesh. Geocarto Int 12(3):91–100Google Scholar
  23. Kapetsky JM (1994) A strategic assessment of warm-water fish farming potential in Africa. CIFA Technical Paper, vol. 27. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  24. Kapetsky JM (1987) Satellite remote sensing to locate and inventory small water bodies for fisheries management and aquaculture development in Zimbabwe. CIFA Occasional Paper (14). FAO, Rome, Italy. Google Scholar
  25. Kapetsky JM, McGregor L, Nanne LH (1987) A geographical information system and satellite remote sensing to plan for aquaculture development: A FAO-UNESCO/GRID cooperative study in Costa Rica. FAO Fisheries Technical Paper (287), p 51Google Scholar
  26. Khan YSA, Hossain MS, Chowdhury MAT (2003) Resource inventory and land use mapping for integrated coastal environment management: remote sensing, GIS and RRA approach in greater Chittagong coast. Ministry of science and information & communication technology, Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh, Dhaka, p 59Google Scholar
  27. Liberatore MJ, Nydick RL (1997) Group decision making in higher education using the analytic hierarchy process. Res High Educ 38(5):593–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Liberatore MJ, Nydick RL, Sanchez PM (1992) The evaluation of research papers (or how to get an academic committee to agree on something). Interfaces 22(2):92–100Google Scholar
  29. Lillisand TM, Kiefer RW (2000) Remote sensing and image interpretation, 4th edition. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, p 724Google Scholar
  30. Luu LT, Trang PV, Cuong NX, Demaine H, Edwards P, Pant J (2002) Promotion of small-scale pond aquaculture in the Red River Delta, Vietnam, In: Edwards P, Little DC, Demaine H (eds) Rural aquaculture, CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, pp 55–76Google Scholar
  31. Malczewski J (1999) GIS and multicriteria decision analysis. New York: Wiley, p 392Google Scholar
  32. Millet I (1998) Ethical decision making using the analytic hierarchy process. J Bus Ethics 17:1197–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mittelmark J, Landkammer D (1990) Design and construction of diversion ponds for aquaculture. Department of Fisheries and Wildlife, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota USAGoogle Scholar
  34. Pereira JMC, Duckstein L (1993) A multiple criteria decision-making approach to GIS-based land suitability evaluation. Int J Geogr Inf Syst 7:407–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pe´rez OM, Telfer TC, Ross LG (2003) Use of GIS-based models for integrating and developing marine fish cages within the tourism industry in Tenerife (Canary Islands). Coast Manag 31:355–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rajitha K, Mukherjee R, Chandran V (2007) Applications of remote sensing and GIS for sustainable management of shrimp culture in India. Aquacult Eng 36:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Research Systems Inc (2000a) ENVI user’s guide. ENVI version 3.4. Research Systems Inc., USAGoogle Scholar
  38. Research Systems Inc (2000b) Exploring ENVI, training course manual. Better Solutions Consulting Limited, Liability Company, USAGoogle Scholar
  39. Ridha M, Al-Ahmad T, Al-Ahmad AA (1985) Tilapia culture in Kuwait: spawning experiments. Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research. Report KISR 1875, Kuwait, p 19Google Scholar
  40. Rossiter DG (1996) A theoretical framework for land evaluation (with discussion). Geoderma 72:165–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Saaty TL (1977) A scaling method for priorities in hierarchical structure. J Math Physiol 15:234–281Google Scholar
  42. Saaty TL (1980) The Analytic Hierarchy Process. McGraw–Hill, New York, NYGoogle Scholar
  43. Saaty TL (1988) The analytic hierarchy process. Typesetters Ltd, Beccles, SuffolkGoogle Scholar
  44. Saaty TL (1990) The analytic hierarchy process: planning, priority setting, resource allocation. RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, p 287Google Scholar
  45. Saaty TL (1994) How to make a decision: the analytic hierarchy process. Interfaces 24(6):19–43Google Scholar
  46. Saaty TL (1999) Decision making for leaders (3rd ed.). RWS Publications, Pittsburgh, PAGoogle Scholar
  47. Salam MA, Khatun NA, Ali MM (2005) Carp farming potential in Barhatta Upazilla, Bangladesh: a GIS methodological perspective. Aquaculture 245:75–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Shahid MA, Pramanik MAH, Jabbar MA, Ali S (1992) Remote sensing application to study the coastal shrimp farming area in Bangladesh. Geocarto Int 2:5–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Suresh AV, Lin CK (1992) Tilapia culture in saline waters: a review. Aquaculture 106:201–226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Venkataratnam L, Thammappa SS, Sankar TR, Anis S (1997) Mapping and monitoring prawn farming areas through remote sensing techniques. Geocarto Int 12(2):23–29Google Scholar
  51. Vibulsresth S, Ratanasermpong S, Dowreang D, Silapathong C (1993) Mangrove monitoring using satellite data. TRSC Newsl 10(1):1–2Google Scholar
  52. William RG (1994) A role for comprehensive planning, Geographical Information System (GIS) technologies and program evaluation in aquatic habitat development. Bull Mar Sci 55(2–3):995–1013Google Scholar
  53. Yi Y, Lin CK (2001) Effects of biomass of caged Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) and aeration on the growth and yields in an integrated cage-cum-pond system. Aquaculture 195:253–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Yi Y, Lin CK, Diana J (1996) Influence of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) stocking density in cages on their growth and yield in cages and in ponds containing the cages. Aquaculture 146:205–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Shahadat Hossain
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sayedur Rahman Chowdhury
    • 1
  • Nani Gopal Das
    • 1
  • M. Moshiur Rahaman
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Marine Sciences and FisheriesUniversity of ChittagongChittagongBangladesh

Personalised recommendations