Aquaculture International

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 499–522 | Cite as

Effect of feed and feeding in the culture of salmonids on the marine aquatic environment: a synthesis for European aquaculture

  • Eleni MenteEmail author
  • Graham J. Pierce
  • Maria Begoña Santos
  • Christos Neofitou
Original Paper


While marine aquaculture has grown rapidly, so have concerns regarding the environmental impacts caused by the industry. In particular, increasing discharges of solid and dissolved fish excretions, nutrients and therapeutic chemicals have coincided with greater public awareness of the possibility of environmental damage. This has stimulated a number of criticisms, drawn from a wide spectrum of interests, ranging from the use of natural fish stocks to produce fish meal for aqua feeds to the effects of enhanced nutrient input on the coastal marine environment. The present study reviews available information on the environmental effects of feeding practices in salmonid aquaculture in Europe. Accumulation of waste food and fish faecal material results in changes in the sediment under fish cages, characterized by a low redox potential, high content of organic material and accumulation of nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds. Although significant environmental impacts have been reported in the literature at distances of up to 100 m from the cages, in general such impacts are reported to be localized to within 20–50 m around the cages. For farmed salmon and trout, mass balance models have been developed for nitrogen and phosphorus, indicating that 50% of the nitrogen and 28% of the phosphorus supplied with the food is wasted in dissolved form. The maximum nutrient release can be estimated from the hydrographic conditions in the immediate vicinity of the farm, such as water volume, tidal water exchange and currents. At present production levels, improvements in the feeding efficiency and feed quality of aquafeeds could reduce waste and consequent environmental impacts.


Aquaculture Environment Feeding Feeds Fish meal 


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The authors wish to thank Dr. A. Machias, N. Bailey, Dr. I. Tuck, J. Martin and Dr. I. Karakassis for useful discussions. This study was funded by EU grant AQCESS (Q5RS-2000-31151).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eleni Mente
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Graham J. Pierce
    • 1
  • Maria Begoña Santos
    • 1
    • 3
  • Christos Neofitou
    • 2
  1. 1. Department of Zoology, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of AberdeenAberdeen, ScotlandUK
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture Animal Production and Aquatic EnvironmentUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece
  3. 3.Instituto Español de OceanografíaCentro Oceanográfico de VigoVigoSpain

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