Aquaculture International

, Volume 14, Issue 5, pp 499–522 | Cite as

Effect of feed and feeding in the culture of salmonids on the marine aquatic environment: a synthesis for European aquaculture

  • Eleni Mente
  • Graham J. Pierce
  • Maria Begoña Santos
  • Christos Neofitou
Original Paper

Abstract

While marine aquaculture has grown rapidly, so have concerns regarding the environmental impacts caused by the industry. In particular, increasing discharges of solid and dissolved fish excretions, nutrients and therapeutic chemicals have coincided with greater public awareness of the possibility of environmental damage. This has stimulated a number of criticisms, drawn from a wide spectrum of interests, ranging from the use of natural fish stocks to produce fish meal for aqua feeds to the effects of enhanced nutrient input on the coastal marine environment. The present study reviews available information on the environmental effects of feeding practices in salmonid aquaculture in Europe. Accumulation of waste food and fish faecal material results in changes in the sediment under fish cages, characterized by a low redox potential, high content of organic material and accumulation of nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds. Although significant environmental impacts have been reported in the literature at distances of up to 100 m from the cages, in general such impacts are reported to be localized to within 20–50 m around the cages. For farmed salmon and trout, mass balance models have been developed for nitrogen and phosphorus, indicating that 50% of the nitrogen and 28% of the phosphorus supplied with the food is wasted in dissolved form. The maximum nutrient release can be estimated from the hydrographic conditions in the immediate vicinity of the farm, such as water volume, tidal water exchange and currents. At present production levels, improvements in the feeding efficiency and feed quality of aquafeeds could reduce waste and consequent environmental impacts.

Keywords

Aquaculture Environment Feeding Feeds Fish meal 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Dr. A. Machias, N. Bailey, Dr. I. Tuck, J. Martin and Dr. I. Karakassis for useful discussions. This study was funded by EU grant AQCESS (Q5RS-2000-31151).

References

  1. Ackefors H, Enell M (1990) Discharge of nutrients from Swedish fish farming to adjacent sea areas. Ambio 19:28–35Google Scholar
  2. Ackefors H, Olburs C (1996) Swedish aquaculture policy—a nightmare for the industry? Aquacult Eur 21:6–13Google Scholar
  3. AQCESS (Aquaculture and coastal economic and social sustainability) (2000) Fifth framework project. Contract No. Q5RS-2000-31151 (http://www.abdn.ac.uk/aqcess/)
  4. Barlow SM (2000) Fishmeal and fish oil: sustainable ingredients for aquafeeds. The Advocate, April, pp 85–88Google Scholar
  5. Bernal PA (1999) Challenges and strategies for the use of the available fish meal resources. In: Svennevig A, Reinertsen H, New M (eds) Sustainable aquaculture. Balekma AA, Rotterdam, pp␣109–115Google Scholar
  6. Berry AW (1996) Aquaculture and sea loch nutrient ratios: a hypothesis. In: Black KD (ed) Aquaculture and sea lochs. The Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, pp 7–15Google Scholar
  7. Beveridge MCM (1996) Cage aquaculture. Fishing News Books Ltd, Oxford, 352 ppGoogle Scholar
  8. Black KD (2001) Environmental impacts of aquaculture. Sheffield Academic Press and CRC Press, SheffieldGoogle Scholar
  9. Black KD, Kiemer MCB, Ezzi IA (1996) The relationships between hydrodynamics, the concentration of hydrogen sulfide produced by polluted sediments and fish health at several marine cage farms in Scotland and Ireland. J Appl Ichthyol 12:15–20Google Scholar
  10. Brezeski V, Newkirk G (1997) Integrated coastal food production systems—a review of current literature. Ocean Coast Manage 34:55–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Brooks KM, Stierns AR, Mahnken CVW, Blackburn DB (2003) Chemical and biological remediation of the benthos near Atlantic salmon farms. Aquaculture 219:355–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown JR, Gowen RJ, McLusky DS (1987) The effect of salmon farming on the benthos of a Scottish sea loch. J Exp Biol Ecol 109:39–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bubridge P, Burbridge V (1994) Review of Scottish coastal issues. A consultants report to the Scottish Office. Crown Copyright, Edimburgh, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  14. Chamberlain G, Barlow S (2000) A balanced assessment of aquaculture. The Advocate, August, 2000Google Scholar
  15. Chamberlain J, Fernandes TF, Read P, Nickell TD, Davies IM (2001) Impacts of biodeposits from suspended mussel (Mytilus edulis L.) culture on the surrounding surficial sediment. ICES J Mar Sci 58:411–416CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheshuk BW, Pursera GJ, Quintana R (2003) Integrated open-water mussel (Mytilus planulatus) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) culture in Tasmania, Australia. Aquaculture 218:357–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Costa-Pierce BA (2002a) Ecological aquaculture. Blackwell Science, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  18. Costa-Pierce BA (2002b) Ecology as the paradigm for the future of aquaculture. In: Costa-Pierce BA (eds) Ecological aquaculture. Blackwell Science, Oxford, pp 340–372Google Scholar
  19. Costello MJ, Grant A, Davies IM, Cecchini S, Papoutsoglou S, Quigley D, Saroglia M (2001) The control of chemicals used in aquaculture in Europe. J Appl Ichthyol 17:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. D’Abramo LR, Conklin DE, Akiyama DM (1997) Crustacean nutrition, vol 6. World Aquaculture Society, Baton Rouge, LAGoogle Scholar
  21. Davenport J, Kenneth B, Burnell G, Cross T, Culloty S, Ekaratne S, Furness B, Mulcahy M, Thetmeyer H (2003) Aquaculture, the ecological issues. British Ecological Society, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  22. Davies IM (2000) Waste production by farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) in Scotland. ICES, CM 2000/0:01Google Scholar
  23. Davies IM, Slaski RJ (2002) Waste production by farmed Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L.). Report FRS, Aberdeen, UKGoogle Scholar
  24. Davies IM, Smith P, Nickell DT, Provost PG (1996) Interactions of salmon farming and benthic micro biology in sea lochs. In: Black KD (ed) Aquaculture and sea lochs. The Scottish Association for Marine Science, Oban, pp 33–39Google Scholar
  25. De Silva SS, Anderson TA (1995) Fish nutrition in aquaculture. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  26. Delgado O, Ruiz J, Perez M, Romero J, Ballestreros E (1999) Effects of fish farming on seagrass (Posidonia oceanica) in a Mediterranean bay: seagrass decline after loading cessation. Oceanol Acta 22:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Doering PH, Oviatt CA, Beatty LL, Banzon VF, Rice R, Kelly SP, Sullivan BK, Frithsen JB (1989) Structure and function in a model coastal ecosystem: silicon, the benthos and eutrophication. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 52:287–299Google Scholar
  28. Dominquez LM, Calero G, Martin J, Robaina L (2001) A comparative study of sediments under a marine cage farm at Gran Canaria Island (Spain): preliminary results. Aquaculture 192:225–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dosdat A (2001) Environmental impact of aquaculture in the Mediterranean: nutritional and feeding aspects. In: Proc Seminar CIHEAM Network Technol Aquacult Mediterr. Cah Options Mediterr 55:23–36Google Scholar
  30. Doyle J, Parker M, Dunne T, Baird D, McArdle J (1984) The impact of blooms on mariculture in Ireland. International council for the exploration of the sea, special meeting on the causes, dynamics and effects of exceptional marine blooms and related events. ICES, Copenhagen, DenmarkGoogle Scholar
  31. Enell M (1995). Environmental impact of nutrients from Nordic fish farms. Water Sci Technol 31:61–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. European Commission (2001) Facts and figures on the CFP-basic data on the common fisheries policy, ISBN 92-894-1842-7 (http://www.europa.eu.int/comm/fisheries/doc_et_publ/liste_publi/facts/pcp_en.pdf)
  33. European Commission (2002) A strategy for the sustainable development of European aquaculture. Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament, Brussels/StrasbourgGoogle Scholar
  34. FAO (2002) The state of world fisheries and aquaculture. ISBN 92-5-104842-8. FAO Fisheries Department, RomeGoogle Scholar
  35. FAO (2003) The ecosystem approach to fisheries technical guidelines for responsible fisheries, No 4, Suppl 2. FAO, RomeGoogle Scholar
  36. Fernandes F, Read P (2000) MARAQUA project (http://www.biol.napier.ac.uk/maraqua/fern.htm)
  37. FIN (2003) Fishmeal from sustainable stocks 2003. Sustainability dossier. Summer 2003. Fishmeal Information Network (http://www.fin.org.uk)
  38. Findly RH, Watling L, Mayer LM (1995) Environmental impact of salmon net-pen culture on marine benthic communities in Maine: a case study. Estuaries 18:145–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fishstat database (2001) Computer system for global fishery statistical time seriesGoogle Scholar
  40. Focardi S, Corsi I, Franchi E (2005) Safety issues and sustainable development of European aquaculture: new tools for environmentally sound aquaculture. Aquacult Int 13:3–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Francis G, Makkar HPS, Becker K (2001) Antinutritional factors present in plant derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture 199:197–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. GESAMP (1996) Joint group of experts on the scientific aspects of marine environmental protection. Monitoring the ecological effects of coastal aquaculture wastes. Study report, GESAMP, 57. FAO, Rome (http://www.fao.org/fi/publ/report/gesamp/r57/R57e.asp)
  43. Gillibrand PA, Turrell WR, Moore DC, Adams RD (1996) Bottom water stagnation and oxygen depletion in a Scottish sea loch. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 43:217–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gillibrand PA, Gubbins MJ, Greathead C, Davies IM (2002) Scottish executive locational guidelines for fish farming: predicted levels of nutrient enhancement and benthic impact. Scottish Fisheries Research Report 63/2002. Fisheries Research Services, AberdeenGoogle Scholar
  45. Gillibrand PW (2000) An overview of scientific research on environmental effects of the Scottish Aquaculture Industry. Fisheries Research Services Marine Laboratory, AberdeenGoogle Scholar
  46. Gowen RJ, Bradbury NB (1987) The ecological impact of salmonid farming in coastal waters: a␣review. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 25:563–575Google Scholar
  47. Gowen RJ, Ezzi IA (1992) Assessment and prediction of the potential for hypernutrification and eutrophication associated with cage culture of salmonids in Scottish coastal waters. Dunstaffnage Marine Laboratory, Oban Scotland and NERC. ISBN 0-9518959-0-7Google Scholar
  48. Gowen RJ, Brown JR, Bradbury NB, McLusky DS (1988) Investigations into benthic enrichment, hypernutrification and eutrophication associated with mariculture in Scottish coastal waters (1984–1988). Department of Biological Science, The University of Stirling, StirlingGoogle Scholar
  49. Guastavino J-M, Holzman L, Johansson L, Pelouin A, Saunier L, Viatte L (1999) Man and coastal areas towards a sustainable aquaculture. Final report of the European workshop for a sustainable development of aquaculture. Kristineberg Marine Research Station, Sweden. Ambassade de France en Suede, Stockholm, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  50. Hall POJ, Anderson LG, Holby O, Kollberg S, Samuelsson M-O (1990) Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. I. Carbon. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 61:61–73Google Scholar
  51. Hall POJ, Holby O, Kollberg S, Samuelsson MO (1992) Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. IV. Nitrogen. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 89:81–91Google Scholar
  52. Hardy RW (1996) Alternative protein sources for salmon and trout diets. Anim Feed Sci Technol 59:71–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Hargrave BT, Duplisea DE, Pdeiffer E, Wildish DJ (1993) Seasonal changes in benthic fluxes of dissolved oxygen and ammonium associated with marine cultured Atlantic salmon. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 96:249–157Google Scholar
  54. Hargrave BT, Phillips GA, Doucette LI, White MJ, Milligan TG, Wildlish DJ, Cranston RE (1997) Assessing benthic impacts of organic enrichment from marine aquaculture. Water Air Soil Pollut 99:641–650Google Scholar
  55. Heath MR, Edwards AC, Patsch J, Turrell WR (2002) Modelling the behaviour of nutrient in the coastal waters of Scotland. Fisheries Research Services Report 10/02, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  56. Heilskov AC, Homer M (2001) Effects of benthic fauna on organic mineralisation in fish-farm sediments: importance of size and abundance. ICES J Mar Sci 58:427–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Henderson A, Gamito S, Karakassis I, Pederson P, Smaal A (2001) Use of hydrodynamic and benthic models for managing environmental impacts of marine aquaculture. J Appl Ichthyol 17:163–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Henderson AR, Davies IM (2000) Review of agriculture, its regulation and monitoring in Scotland. J␣Appl Ichthyol 16:200–208CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Henderson RJ, Forrest DAM, Black KD, Park MT (1997) The lipid composition of sealoch sediments underlying salmon cages. Aquaculture 158:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Holby O, Hall POJ (1991) Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. II. Phosphorus. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 70:263–272Google Scholar
  61. Holby O, Hall POJ (1994) Chemical fluxes and mass balances in a marine fish cage farm. 3. Silicon. Aquaculture 120:305–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Holmer M (1992) Impacts of aquaculture on surrounding sediments: generation of organic-rich sediments. In: De Pauw N, Joyce J (eds) Aquaculture and the environment. European Aquaculture Society, Special Publication, nr. 16, Belgium, pp 155–175Google Scholar
  63. Holmer H, Kristensen E (1992) Impact of marine fish cage farming on metabolism and sulfate reduction of underlying sediments. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 80:191–201Google Scholar
  64. ICES (1995) Report of the ICES workshop on principles and practical measures for the interaction of mariculture and fisheries in coastal area planning and management. ICES CM. 1995F: 56, pp␣1–31 (Mariculture Committee)Google Scholar
  65. ICES (1999) Report of the working group on environmental interactions of mariculture. ICES CM/F: 5, pp 1–120Google Scholar
  66. ICES (2002) Report of the working group on environmental interactions of mariculture, ICES headquarters, CopenhagenGoogle Scholar
  67. James DG (1995) Marine living resources: present utilization and future. In: Reinertsen H, Haaland H (eds) Sustainable fish farming. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 79–87Google Scholar
  68. Johannessen PJ, Botnen H, Tvedten O (1994) Macrobenthos: before, during and after a fish farm. Aquacult Fish Manage 25:55–66Google Scholar
  69. Jonsson B (1997) A review of ecological and behavioural interactions between cultured and wild Atlantic salmon. ICES J Mar Sci 54:1031–1039Google Scholar
  70. Karakassis I, Tsapakis M, Hatziyanni E (1998) Seasonal variability in sediment profiles beneath fish farm cages in the Mediterranean. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 162:243–252Google Scholar
  71. Karakassis I, Hatziyanni E, Tsapakis M, Plaiti W (1999) Benthic recovery following cessation of fish farming: a series of successes and catastrophes. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 184:205–218Google Scholar
  72. Karakassis I, Tsapakis M, Hatziyanni E, Papadopoulou KN, Plaiti W (2000) Impact of cage farming of fish on the seabed in three Mediterranean coastal areas. ICES J Mar Sci 57:1462–1471CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Karakassis I, Tsapakis M, Smith CJ, Rumohr H (2002) Fish farming impacts in the Mediterranean studied through sediment profiling imagery. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 227:125–133Google Scholar
  74. Karakassis I, Papadopoulou N-K, Machias A, Koutsoubas D (2003) The environmental impact of fish farming on the marine environment. Final report to the EU, DGXIV, Contract Q5RS-2000-31151Google Scholar
  75. Kaushik SJ (2003) Aquaculture feeds: research perspective. Abstracts on a workshop on a EU 5th framework research project (SEAfeeds), University of Stirling, Stirling, UK (http://www.seafeeds.net)
  76. Kaushik SJ, Cravedi JP, Lalles JP, Sumpter J, Fauconneau B, Laroche M (1995) Partial or total replacement of fish meal by soybean protein on growth, protein utilization, potential estrogenic or anti-genic effects, cholesterolemia and flesh quality in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture 133:257–274CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Koussouris T, Fotis G, Conides A (1995) Aquaculture and the environment (in Greek). Agricultural Bank of Hellas SA Publications, GreeceGoogle Scholar
  78. Krost P, Chrzan T, Schomann H, Rosenthal H (1994) Effects of a floating fish farm in Kiel Fjord on the sediment. J Appl Icthyol 10:353–361Google Scholar
  79. Kupka-Hansen P, Pittman K, Ervik A (1991) Organic waste from marine fish farms-effects on the seabed. In: Kupka-Hansen P (ed) Marine aquaculture and the environment. Nordic Council of Ministers, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp 105–119Google Scholar
  80. Lumb CM (1989) Self-pollution by Scottish salmon farms?. Mar Pollut Bull 20:375–379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Machias A, Karakassis I, Labropoulou M, Somarakis S, Papadopoulou KN, Papaconstantimou C (2004) Changes in wild fish assemblages after the establishment of a fish farming zone in an oligotrophic marine environment. Estuar Coast Shelf Sci 60:771–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. McCaig AE, Phillips CJ, Stephen JR, Kowalchuk GA, Harvey SM, Herbert RA, Embley TM, Prosser JI (1999) Nitrogen cycling and community structure of proteobacterial β-subgroup ammonia-oxidizing bacteria within polluted marine fish farm sediments. Appl Environ Microbiol 65:213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. McGarvin M (2000) Scotland’s secret? Aquaculture, nutrient pollution, eutrophication and toxic blooms. WWF, Aberfeldy, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  84. McGhie TK, Crawford C, Mitchell I, O’Brien D (2000) The degradation of fish-cage waste in sediments during fallowing. Aquaculture 187:351–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mente (2003) Nutrition, physiology and metabolism in crustaceans. Science Publishers, Enfield, NHGoogle Scholar
  86. Morrisey DJ, Gibbs M, Pickmere S, Cole R (2000) Predicting impacts and recovery of marine-farm sites in Stewart Island, New Zealand, from the Findlay-Watling model. Aquaculture 185:257–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Naylor RL, Goldburg GRJ, Primavera JH, Kautsky N, Beveridge MCM, Clay JF, Olke C, Lubchenco J, Mooney H, Troell M (2000) Effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Nature 405:1017–1024PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. NCC (1990) Fish farming and the Scottish freshwater environment. Nature Conservancy Council Report. ISBN 0-86139-658-8Google Scholar
  89. New MB (1995) The use of marine resources in aquafeeds. In: Reinertsen H, Haaland H (eds) Sustainable fish farming. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 43–78Google Scholar
  90. Newkirk G (1996) Sustainable coastal production systems: a model for integrating aquaculture and fisheries under community management. Ocean Coast Manage 32:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Nickell LA, Kenneth DB, Hughes D, Overnell J, Brand T, Nickell TD, Breuer E, Harvey SM (2003) Bioturbation, sediment fluxes and benthic community structure around a salmon cage farm in Loch Creran, Scotland. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 285–286:221–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. O’Connor BDS, Costelloe J, Keegan BF, Rhoads DC (1989) The use of REMOTS technology in monitoring coastal enrichment resulting from mariculture. Mar Pollut Bull 20:384–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Panserat S, Kaushik S (2002) Nutritional regulation of hepatic glucose metabolism in fish: example of a poor user of dietary carbohydrates, the rainbow trout. Prod Anim 15:109–117Google Scholar
  94. Panserat S, Medale F, Breque J, Plagnes-Juan E, Kaushik S (2000) Lack of significant long-term effect of dietary carbohydrates on hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). J Nutr Biochem 11:22–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Parsons TR, Harrison PJ, Waters R (1978) An experimental simulation of changes in diatom and flagellate blooms. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 32:285–294CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres F Jr (1998) Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279:860–869PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Pearson TH, Rosenberg R (1978) Macrobenthic succession in relation to organic enrichment and pollution of the marine environment. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 16:229–311Google Scholar
  98. Pearson TH, Black KD (2001) The environmental impacts of marine fish cage culture. In: Black KD (ed) Environmental impacts of aquaculture. Academic Press and CRC Press, Sheffield, UK, pp␣1–32Google Scholar
  99. Pearson TH, Blackstock J, Duncan JAR (1995) Productivity of organically enriched ecosystems. MAFF R and D Project, Code CSA 1628/2567. Final Report. Part 1: Text, 48 pp. Part 2: Annexes 1–4Google Scholar
  100. Penston MJ, McKibben MA, Hay DW, Gillibrand PA (2004) Observations on open-water densities of sea lice larvae in Loch Shieldaig, Western Scotland. Aquacult Res 35:793–805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Pike I (1999) The real effect of aquaculture on world fish supplies. Feed International, September 1999, pp 34–40Google Scholar
  102. Pike AW, Wadsworth SL (2000) Sealice on salmonids: their biology and control. Adv Parasitol 44:233–337Google Scholar
  103. Pillay TVR (1992) Aquaculture principles and practices. Fishing New Books, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  104. Pitta P, Karakassis I, Tsapakis M, Zivanovic S (1999) Natural vs. mariculture induced variability in nutrients and plankton in the eastern Mediterranean. Hydrobiologia 391:181–194Google Scholar
  105. Pocklington P, Scott DB, Schaffer CT (1994) Polychaete response to different aquaculture activities. In: Dauvin JC, Laubier L, Reish DJ (eds) Actes de la 4ème Conference internationale des Polychètes. Mém. Mus. Nat. Hist. Nat., nr. 162, Paris, pp 511–520Google Scholar
  106. Ritz DA, Lewis M, Shen M (1989) Response to organic enrichment of infaunal macrobenthic communities under salmonid sea cages. Mar Biol 103:211–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Ryther JH, Dunstan WM (1971) Nitrogen phosphorous and eutrophication in the coastal marine environment. Science 171:1008–1013PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. Scottish Executive (2002) Review and synthesis of the environmental impacts of aquaculture. Central Research Unit. The Scottish Association for Marine Science and Napier University, Edinburgh, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  109. SEAfeeds project (2003) Seafeeds, sustainable environmental aquaculture feeds. Report, University of Sterling, Institute of Aquaculture and Nautilus Consultants (http://www.seafeeds.net)
  110. SEPA (1998) A manual of regulation and monitoring for cage fish farming in Scotland. Scottish Environment Protection Agency, Stirling, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  111. Shiau A-Y (1998) Nutrient requirements of penaeid shrimps. Aquaculture 164:77–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Shimizu Y (1989) Toxicology and pharmacology of red tides: an overview. In: Okaichi T, Anderson DM, Nemoto T (eds) Red tides: Biology, environmental science and toxicology. Elsevier Science Publishing Co., Inc., pp 17–21Google Scholar
  113. Smith IP, Metcalfe NB, Huntingford FA, Kadri S (1993) Daily and seasonal patterns in the feeding behaviour of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) in a sea cage. Aquaculture 117:165–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Smith CJ, Rumohr H, Karakassis I, Papadopoulou KN (2003) Analysing the impact of bottom trawls on sedimentary seabeds with sediment with sediment seabeds profile imagery. J Exp Mar Biol Ecol 285:479–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Starkey T (2001) Ban, quotas hit animal protein supply. The Advocate, February, 2001Google Scholar
  116. Stead SM, Laird L (2002) Handbook of salmon farming. Springer Praxis, Chichester, UKGoogle Scholar
  117. Tacon A (1995) Feed ingredients for carnivorous fish species: alternative to fishmeal and other fishery resources. In: Reinertsen H, Haaland H (eds) Sustainable fish farming. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 79–87Google Scholar
  118. Tacon A (2000) Rendered animal by-products: a necessity in aquafeeds for the new Millennium. Global Aquacult Advocate 3:18–19Google Scholar
  119. Tacon A (2003) Sustainable aquaculture feeds: an overview and global perspective. Abstracts on a workshop on a EU 5th framework research project (SEAfeeds). University of Stirling, Stirling, UK (http://www.seafeeds.net)
  120. Thomson M, Side J (2002) Environmental considerations and legislative control of marine salmon farming. In: Stead SM, Laird L (eds) Handbook of salmon farming. Springer Praxis, Chichester, UK, pp 331–371Google Scholar
  121. Tidwell JH, Allan GL (2001) Fish as food: aquaculture’s contribution. EMBO Rep 2:958–963PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Troell M, Kautsky N, Folke C (1999) Applicability of integrated coastal aquaculture systems. Commentary. Ocean Coast Manage 42:63–69CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Tsutsumi H (1995) Impact of fish net-pen culture on the benthic environment of a cove in South Japan. Estuaries 18:108–115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Tsutsumi HT, Kikuchi T, Tanaka M, Higashi T, Imasaka K, Miyazaki M (1991) Benthic faunal succession in a cove organically polluted by fish farming. Mar Pollut Bull 23:233–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Turrell WG, Slesser G (1992) Annual cycles of physical chemical and biological parameters in Scottish Waters. Marine Laboratory, Scottish Fisheries Working paper No 5/92. SOAFD, ScotlandGoogle Scholar
  126. Weston DP (1990) Quantitative examination of macrobenthic community changes along an organic enrichment gradient. Mar Ecol Prog Ser 61:233–244Google Scholar
  127. Wildish DJ, Keizer PD, Wilson AJ, Martin JL (1993) Seasonal changes of dissolved oxygen and plant nutrients in seawater near salmonid net pens in the macrotidal bay of Fundy. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 50:303–311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wu RSS (1995) The environmental impact of marine fish culture: towards a sustainable future. Mar Pollut Bull 31:159–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wu RSS, Lam KS, MacKay DW, Lau TC, Yam V (1994) Impact of marine fish farming on water quality and bottom sediment: a case study in the sub-tropical environment. Mar Environ Res 38:115–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eleni Mente
    • 1
    • 2
  • Graham J. Pierce
    • 1
  • Maria Begoña Santos
    • 1
    • 3
  • Christos Neofitou
    • 2
  1. 1. Department of Zoology, School of Biological SciencesUniversity of AberdeenAberdeen, ScotlandUK
  2. 2.Department of Agriculture Animal Production and Aquatic EnvironmentUniversity of ThessalyVolosGreece
  3. 3.Instituto Español de OceanografíaCentro Oceanográfico de VigoVigoSpain

Personalised recommendations