Aquatic Geochemistry

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 809–820

An Equation of State for Hypersaline Water in Great Salt Lake, Utah, USA

  • David L. Naftz
  • Frank J. Millero
  • Blair F. Jones
  • W. Reed Green
Original Paper


Great Salt Lake (GSL) is one of the largest and most saline lakes in the world. In order to accurately model limnological processes in GSL, hydrodynamic calculations require the precise estimation of water density (ρ) under a variety of environmental conditions. An equation of state was developed with water samples collected from GSL to estimate density as a function of salinity and water temperature. The ρ of water samples from the south arm of GSL was measured as a function of temperature ranging from 278 to 323 degrees Kelvin (oK) and conductivity salinities ranging from 23 to 182 g L−1 using an Anton Paar density meter. These results have been used to develop the following equation of state for GSL (σ = ± 0.32 kg m−3):
$$ \rho - \rho^{0} = { 184}.0 10 6 2 { } + { 1}.0 4 70 8*{\text{S}} - 1. 2 10 6 1*{\text{T }} + { 3}. 1 4 7 2 1 {\text{E}} - 4*{\text{S}}^{ 2} + \, 0.00 1 9 9 {\text{T}}^{ 2} - 0.00 1 1 2*{\text{S}}*{\text{T}}, $$
where ρ0 is the density of pure water in kg m−3, S is conductivity salinity g L−1, and T is water temperature in degrees Kelvin.


Density Conductivity Great Salt Lake Salinity Terminal lake 


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Copyright information

© U.S. Government 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • David L. Naftz
    • 1
  • Frank J. Millero
    • 2
  • Blair F. Jones
    • 3
  • W. Reed Green
    • 4
  1. 1.U.S. Geological SurveySalt Lake CityUSA
  2. 2.University of MiamiMiamiUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Geological SurveyRestonUSA
  4. 4.U.S. Geological SurveyLittle RockUSA

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