Staurosporine-induced apoptotic water loss is cell- and attachment-specific
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Apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) is a characteristic cell shrinkage observed during apoptosis. There are at least two known processes that may result in the AVD: exit of intracellular water and splitting of cells into smaller fragments. Although AVD has traditionally been attributed to water loss, direct evidence for that is often lacking. In this study, we quantified intracellular water in staurosporine-treated cells using a previously described optical microscopic technique that combines volume measurements with quantitative phase analysis. Water loss was observed in detached HeLa and in adherent MDCK but not in adherent HeLa cells. At the same time, adherent HeLa and adherent MDCK cells exhibited visually similar apoptotic morphology, including fragmentation and activation of caspase-3. Morphological changes and caspase activation were prevented by chloride channel blockers DIDS and NPPB in both adherent and suspended HeLa cells, while potassium channel blocker TEA was ineffective. We conclude that staurosporine-induced dehydration is not a universal cell response but depends on the cell type and substrate attachment and can only be judged by direct water measurements. The effects of potassium or chloride channel blockers do not always correlate with the AVD.
KeywordsApoptotic volume decrease Staurosporine Intracellular water Transport of intensity equation Transmission-through-dye microscopy Apoptotic bodies
The work was supported by the Kent State University Research Council.
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