, Volume 22, Issue 6, pp 777–785 | Cite as

Study on the apoptosis mediated by cytochrome c and factors that affect the activation of bovine longissimus muscle during postmortem aging

  • Jiaying Zhang
  • Qunli Yu
  • Ling Han
  • Cheng Chen
  • Hang Li
  • Guangxing Han


This study investigates whether bovine longissimus muscle cell apoptosis occurs during postmortem aging and whether apoptosis is dependent on the mitochondria pathway. This study also determines the apoptosis process mediated by cytochrome c after its release from mitochondria and the factors that affect the activation processes. Results indicate that apoptotic nuclei were detected at 12 h postmortem. Cytochrome c release from the mitochondria to the cytoplasm activated the caspase-9 and caspase-3 at early postmortem aging and the activation of caspase-9 occurs before the activation of caspase-3. The pH level decreased during the first 48 h postmortem, whereas the mitochondria membrane permeability increased from 6 to 12 h. Results demonstrate that an apoptosis process of bovine muscle occurred during postmortem aging. Apoptosis was dependent on the mitochondria pathway and occurred at early postmortem aging. Increased mitochondria membrane permeability and low pH are necessary conditions for the release of cytochrome c during postmortem aging.


Apoptosis Cytochrome c-mediated Mitochondria Bovine longissimus muscle Postmortem aging 



We thank colleagues in the laboratory and our collaborators for their useful suggestions. This work was supported by the China Agriculture Research System (CARS-38), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.: 31560463).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Jiaying Zhang, Qunli Yu, Ling Han, Cheng Chen, Hang Li and Guangxing Han declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the author.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jiaying Zhang
    • 1
  • Qunli Yu
    • 1
  • Ling Han
    • 1
  • Cheng Chen
    • 1
  • Hang Li
    • 2
  • Guangxing Han
    • 3
  1. 1.College of Food Science and EngineeringGansu Agricultural UniversityLanzhouChina
  2. 2.Chongqing Heng Du Agricultural Development Co., Ltd.FengduChina
  3. 3.Shandong Lorain Corporation Co., Ltd.LinyiChina

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