Docosahexaenoic acid induces apoptosis in lung cancer cells by increasing MKP-1 and down-regulating p-ERK1/2 and p-p38 expression
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Different agents able to modulate apoptosis have been shown to modify the expression of the MAP-kinase-phosphatase-1 (MKP-1). The expression of this phosphatase has been considered a potential positive prognostic factor in lung cancer, and smoke was shown to reduce the levels of MKP-1 in ferret lung. Our aim was to assess whether the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), known to inhibit the growth of several cancer cells mainly inducing apoptosis, may exert pro-apoptotic effect in lung cancer cells by modifying MKP-1 expression. We observed that DHA increased MKP-1 protein and mRNA expression and induced apoptosis in different lung cancer cell lines (mink Mv1Lu adenocarcinoma cells, human A549 adenocarcinoma and human BEN squamous carcinoma cells). We inhibited the pro-apoptotic effect of DHA by treating the cells with the phosphatase inhibitor Na3VO4 or by silencing the MKP-1 gene with the specific siRNA. This finding demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis by DHA involved a phosphatase activity, specifically that of MKP-1. DHA reduced also the levels of the phosphorylated MAP-kinases, especially ERK1/2 and p38. Such an effect was not observed when the MKP-1 gene was silenced. Altogether, the data provide evidence that the DHA-induced overexpression of MKP-1 and the resulting decrease of MAP-kinase phosphorylation by DHA may underlie the pro-apoptotic effect of this fatty acid in lung cancer cells. Moreover, they support the hypothesis that DHA may exert chemopreventive action in lung cancer.
Key wordsApoptosis Docosahexaenoic acid Lung cancer cells MAP kinases MKP-1
This work was supported in part by grant D1 2006 to GC from the Catholic University of Sacred Hearth within its program of promotion and diffusion of scientific research.
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